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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 49; doi:10.3390/nano7020049

Evaluating Adverse Effects of Inhaled Nanoparticles by Realistic In Vitro Technology

1
Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 2, P.O. Box 922, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
2
Institute of Aerosol and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Klosterzelgstrasse 2, 5210 Windisch, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eleonore Fröhlich
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1926 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

The number of daily products containing nanoparticles (NP) is rapidly increasing. NP in powders, dispersions, or sprays are a yet unknown risk for incidental exposure, especially at workplaces during NP production and processing, and for consumers of any health status and age using NP containing sprays. We developed the nano aerosol chamber for in vitro toxicity (NACIVT), a portable instrument for realistic safety testing of inhaled NP in vitro and evaluated effects of silver (Ag) and carbon (C) NP—which belong to the most widely used nanomaterials—on normal and compromised airway epithelia. We review the development, physical performance, and suitability of NACIVT for short and long-term exposures with air-liquid interface (ALI) cell cultures in regard to the prerequisites of a realistic in vitro test system for inhalation toxicology and in comparison to other commercially available, well characterized systems. We also review doses applied to cell cultures in vitro and acknowledge that a single exposure to realistic doses of spark generated 20-nm Ag- or CNP results in small, similar cellular responses to both NP types and that cytokine release generally increased with increasing NP dose. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3R; aerosol; air-liquid interface; airway epithelia; electrostatic deposition; engineered nanoparticles; in vitro; NACIVT; toxicology; nanoparticles 3R; aerosol; air-liquid interface; airway epithelia; electrostatic deposition; engineered nanoparticles; in vitro; NACIVT; toxicology; nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Geiser, M.; Jeannet, N.; Fierz, M.; Burtscher, H. Evaluating Adverse Effects of Inhaled Nanoparticles by Realistic In Vitro Technology. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 49.

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