Rare Earth Ion-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Surface Modification
AbstractThe unique luminescent properties exhibited by rare earth ion-doped upconversion nanocrystals (UCNPs), such as long lifetime, narrow emission line, high color purity, and high resistance to photobleaching, have made them widely used in many areas, including but not limited to high-resolution displays, new-generation information technology, optical communication, bioimaging, and therapy. However, the inherent upconversion luminescent properties of UCNPs are influenced by various parameters, including the size, shape, crystal structure, and chemical composition of the UCNPs, and even the chosen synthesis process and the surfactant molecules used. This review will provide a complete summary on the synthesis methods and the surface modification strategies of UCNPs reported so far. Firstly, we summarize the synthesis methodologies developed in the past decades, such as thermal decomposition, thermal coprecipitation, hydro/solvothermal, sol-gel, combustion, and microwave synthesis. In the second part, five main streams of surface modification strategies for converting hydrophobic UCNPs into hydrophilic ones are elaborated. Finally, we consider the likely directions of the future development and challenges of the synthesis and surface modification, such as the large-scale production and actual applications, stability, and so on, of the UCNPs. View Full-Text
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Chang, H.; Xie, J.; Zhao, B.; Liu, B.; Xu, S.; Ren, N.; Xie, X.; Huang, L.; Huang, W. Rare Earth Ion-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Surface Modification. Nanomaterials 2015, 5, 1-25.
Chang H, Xie J, Zhao B, Liu B, Xu S, Ren N, Xie X, Huang L, Huang W. Rare Earth Ion-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Surface Modification. Nanomaterials. 2015; 5(1):1-25.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chang, Hongjin; Xie, Juan; Zhao, Baozhou; Liu, Botong; Xu, Shuilin; Ren, Na; Xie, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei. 2015. "Rare Earth Ion-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Surface Modification." Nanomaterials 5, no. 1: 1-25.