Nanomaterials 2014, 4(1), 129-154; doi:10.3390/nano4010129
Review

Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

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Received: 23 December 2013; in revised form: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 6 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Up-Converting Nanoparticles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.
Keywords: upconversion nanoparticles; molecular imaging; luminescent nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Min, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, F.; Padmanabhan, P.; Yeow, E.K.L.; Xing, B. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 129-154.

AMA Style

Min Y, Li J, Liu F, Padmanabhan P, Yeow EKL, Xing B. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials. 2014; 4(1):129-154.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Min, Yuanzeng; Li, Jinming; Liu, Fang; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Yeow, Edwin K.L.; Xing, Bengang. 2014. "Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials." Nanomaterials 4, no. 1: 129-154.

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