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Nanomaterials 2014, 4(1), 129-154; doi:10.3390/nano4010129

Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371, Singapore
The Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Research Techno Plaza, Singapore 637553, Singapore
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 6 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Up-Converting Nanoparticles)
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Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.
Keywords: upconversion nanoparticles; molecular imaging; luminescent nanomaterials upconversion nanoparticles; molecular imaging; luminescent nanomaterials

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Min, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, F.; Padmanabhan, P.; Yeow, E.K.L.; Xing, B. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 129-154.

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