Abstract: Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.
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Min, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, F.; Padmanabhan, P.; Yeow, E.K.L.; Xing, B. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 129-154.
Min Y, Li J, Liu F, Padmanabhan P, Yeow EKL, Xing B. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials. 2014; 4(1):129-154.
Min, Yuanzeng; Li, Jinming; Liu, Fang; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Yeow, Edwin K.L.; Xing, Bengang. 2014. "Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials." Nanomaterials 4, no. 1: 129-154.