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Nanomaterials 2015, 5(1), 218-232;

Synthesis of Upconversion β-NaYF4:Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ Particles with Enhanced Luminescent Intensity through Control of Morphology and Phase

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Harbin Huigong Technology Co. Ltd, Harbin 150001, China
Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 24 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Up-Converting Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1056 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


Hexagonal NaYF4:Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals and nanocrystals with well-defined morphologies and sizes have been synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The rational control of initial reaction conditions can not only result in upconversion (UC) micro and nanocrystals with varying morphologies, but also can produce enhanced and tailored upconversion emissions from the Yb3+/Er3+ ion pairs sensitized by the Nd3+ ions. The increase of reaction time converts the phase of NaYF4:Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ particles from the cubic to the hexagonal structure. The added amount of oleic acid plays a critical role in the shape evolution of the final products due to their preferential attachment to some crystal planes. The adjustment of the molar ratio of F/Ln3+ can range the morphologies of the β-NaYF4:Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals from spheres to nanorods. When excited by 808 nm infrared laser, β-NaYF4:Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ microplates exhibit a much stronger UC emission intensity than particles with other morphologies. This phase- and morphology-dependent UC emission holds promise for applications in photonic devices and biological studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: NaYF4 microcrystals; Nd3+ sensitizer; morphology control; upconversion (UC) NaYF4 microcrystals; Nd3+ sensitizer; morphology control; upconversion (UC)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shang, Y.; Hao, S.; Liu, J.; Tan, M.; Wang, N.; Yang, C.; Chen, G. Synthesis of Upconversion β-NaYF4:Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ Particles with Enhanced Luminescent Intensity through Control of Morphology and Phase. Nanomaterials 2015, 5, 218-232.

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