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Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 372-407; doi:10.3390/nano4020372

Emergent Properties and Toxicological Considerations for Nanohybrid Materials in Aquatic Systems

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Department of Environmental and Global Health, Center for Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Conjugation of multiple nanomaterials has become the focus of recent materials development. This new material class is commonly known as nanohybrids or “horizon nanomaterials”. Conjugation of metal/metal oxides with carbonaceous nanomaterials and overcoating or doping of one metal with another have been pursued to enhance material performance and/or incorporate multifunctionality into nano-enabled devices and processes. Nanohybrids are already at use in commercialized energy, electronics and medical products, which warrant immediate attention for their safety evaluation. These conjugated ensembles likely present a new set of physicochemical properties that are unique to their individual component attributes, hence increasing uncertainty in their risk evaluation. Established toxicological testing strategies and enumerated underlying mechanisms will thus need to be re-evaluated for the assessment of these horizon materials. This review will present a critical discussion on the altered physicochemical properties of nanohybrids and analyze the validity of existing nanotoxicology data against these unique properties. The article will also propose strategies to evaluate the conjugate materials’ safety to help undertake future toxicological research on the nanohybrid material class.
Keywords: nanohybrids; carbon; metal; nanotoxicology; ecotoxicology; aquatic nanohybrids; carbon; metal; nanotoxicology; ecotoxicology; aquatic

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saleh, N.B.; Afrooz, A.R.M.N.; Bisesi,, J.H., Jr.; Aich, N.; Plazas-Tuttle, J.; Sabo-Attwood, T. Emergent Properties and Toxicological Considerations for Nanohybrid Materials in Aquatic Systems. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 372-407.

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