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J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 20; doi:10.3390/jfb8020020

Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
2
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
3
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anil Mahapatro
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1674 KB, uploaded 22 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V; nitric oxide; self-assembled monolayers; S-nitroso-penicillamine; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus epidermidis Ti-6Al-4V; nitric oxide; self-assembled monolayers; S-nitroso-penicillamine; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus epidermidis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reger, N.A.; Meng, W.S.; Gawalt, E.S. Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 20.

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