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J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 27; doi:10.3390/jfb8030027

Orthodontic Metallic Lingual Brackets: The Dark Side of the Moon of Bond Failures?

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry–Section of Dentistry-Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anil Mahapatro
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [567 KB, uploaded 7 July 2017]   |  


Lingual orthodontics, among both young and adult patients, increased in popularity during last years. The purposes of the present investigation were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) values and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores of different lingual brackets compared with a vestibular control bracket. One hundred bovine teeth were extracted and embedded in resin blocks. Four different lingual brackets (Idea, Leone; STB, Ormco; TTR, RMO; 2D, Forestadent) and a vestibular control bracket (Victory, 3M) were bonded to the bovine enamel surfaces and subsequently shear tested to failure utilizing a Universal Testing Machine. SBS values were measured. A microscopic evaluation was performed to obtain ARI scores. Statistical analysis was performed at a statistically significant level of p < 0.05 to determine significant differences in SBS values and ARI Scores. No statistically significant variations in SBS were reported among the different groups. Conversely, significant differences were shown in ARI scores among the various groups. Clinical relevance of the present study is that orthodontists can expect similar resistance to debonding forces from lingual appliances as with vestibular brackets. View Full-Text
Keywords: dentistry; orthodontics; lingual; bracket; base; shear; bond; strength; adhesive remnant index; adhesion dentistry; orthodontics; lingual; bracket; base; shear; bond; strength; adhesive remnant index; adhesion

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sfondrini, M.F.; Gandini, P.; Gioiella, A.; Zhou, F.X.; Scribante, A. Orthodontic Metallic Lingual Brackets: The Dark Side of the Moon of Bond Failures? J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 27.

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J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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