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Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties
Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain
N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov St. 28, Moscow 119991, Russia
A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov St. 28, Moscow 119991, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2011; in revised form: 8 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Abstract: The conformation of the imprinted pockets in stimulus-responsive networks can be notably altered when the stimulus causes a volume phase transition. Such a tunable affinity for the template molecule finds interesting applications in the biomedical and drug delivery fields. Nevertheless, the effect that the binding of the template causes on the stimuli-responsiveness of the network has barely been evaluated. In this work, the effect of two ionic drugs used as templates, namely propranolol hydrochloride and ibuprofen sodium, on the responsiveness of N-isopropylacrylamide-based hydrogels copolymerized with acrylic acid (AAc) and N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide (APMA) and on their ability to rebind and to control the release of the template was evaluated. The degree of swelling and, in some cases, energetics (HS-DSC) of the transitions were monitored as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of drug. Marked decrease in the transition temperature of the hydrogels, accompanied by notable changes in the transition width, was observed in physiological NaCl solutions and after the binding of the drug molecules, which reveals relevant changes in the domain structure of the hydrogels as the charged groups are shielded. The ability of the hydrogels to rebind propranolol or ibuprofen was quantified at both 4 and 37 °C and at two different drug concentrations, in the range of those that cause major changes in the network structure. Noticeable differences between hydrogels bearing AAc or APMA and between imprinted and non-imprinted networks were also observed during the release tests in NaCl solutions of various concentrations. Overall, the results obtained evidence the remarkable effect of the template molecules on the responsiveness of intelligent imprinted hydrogels.
Keywords: stimulus-responsive network; imprinted hydrogel; ionic and polyampholite hydrogels; propranolol; ibuprofen; controlled release
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Lago, M.A.; Grinberg, V.Y.; Burova, T.V.; Concheiro, A.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C. Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties. J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2, 373-390.
Lago MA, Grinberg VY, Burova TV, Concheiro A, Alvarez-Lorenzo C. Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2011; 2(4):373-390.
Lago, Miguel A.; Grinberg, Valerij Ya.; Burova, Tatiana V.; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen. 2011. "Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties." J. Funct. Biomater. 2, no. 4: 373-390.