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Information, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2011), Pages 247-382

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Research

Open AccessArticle Designing Data Protection Safeguards Ethically
Information 2011, 2(2), 247-265; doi:10.3390/info2020247
Received: 12 February 2011 / Revised: 2 March 2011 / Accepted: 14 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT) with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened
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Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT) with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened by the capacities of computers to draw upon the tools of artificial intelligence (AI) and operations research. However, work on AI and the law entails crucial ethical issues concerning both values and modalities of design. On one hand, design choices might result in conflicts of values and, vice versa, values may affect design features. On the other hand, the modalities of design cannot only limit the impact of harm-generating behavior but also prevent such behavior from occurring via self-enforcement technologies. In order to address some of the most relevant issues of data protection today, the paper suggests we adopt a stricter, yet more effective version of “privacy by design.” The goal should be to reinforce people’s pre-existing autonomy, rather than having to build it from scratch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trust and Privacy in Our Networked World)
Open AccessArticle Distribution of “Characteristic” Terms in MEDLINE Literatures
Information 2011, 2(2), 266-276; doi:10.3390/info2020266
Received: 3 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 30 March 2011
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Abstract
Given the occurrence frequency of any term within any set of articles within MEDLINE, we define “characteristic” terms as words and phrases that occur in that literature more frequently than expected by chance (at p
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Given the occurrence frequency of any term within any set of articles within MEDLINE, we define “characteristic” terms as words and phrases that occur in that literature more frequently than expected by chance (at p < 0.001 or better). In this report, we studied how the cut-off criterion varied as a function of literature size and term frequency in MEDLINE as a whole, and have compared the distribution of characteristic terms within a number of journal-defined, affiliation-defined and random literatures. We also investigated how the characteristic terms were distributed among MEDLINE titles, abstracts, and last sentence of abstracts, including “regularized” terms that appear both in the title and abstract of the same paper for at least one paper in the literature. For a set of 10 disciplinary journals, the characteristic terms comprised 18% of the total terms on average. Characteristic terms are utilized in several of our web-based services (Anne O’Tate and Arrowsmith), and should be useful for a variety of other information-processing tasks designed to improve text mining in MEDLINE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Spencer-Brown vs. Probability and Statistics: Entropy’s Testimony on Subjective and Objective Randomness
Information 2011, 2(2), 277-301; doi:10.3390/info2020277
Received: 8 February 2011 / Revised: 22 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 4 April 2011
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Abstract
This article analyzes the role of entropy in Bayesian statistics, focusing on its use as a tool for detection, recognition and validation of eigen-solutions. “Objects as eigen-solutions” is a key metaphor of the cognitive constructivism epistemological framework developed by the philosopher Heinz von
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This article analyzes the role of entropy in Bayesian statistics, focusing on its use as a tool for detection, recognition and validation of eigen-solutions. “Objects as eigen-solutions” is a key metaphor of the cognitive constructivism epistemological framework developed by the philosopher Heinz von Foerster. Special attention is given to some objections to the concepts of probability, statistics and randomization posed by George Spencer-Brown, a figure of great influence in the field of radical constructivism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "FIS 2010 Beijing")
Open AccessArticle Experimental Approaches to Referential Domains and the On-Line Processing of Referring Expressions in Unscripted Conversation
Information 2011, 2(2), 302-326; doi:10.3390/info2020302
Received: 8 February 2011 / Revised: 8 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 April 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes research investigating the on-line processing of language in unscripted conversational settings. In particular, we focus on the process of formulating and interpreting definite referring expressions. Within this domain we present results of two eye-tracking experiments addressing the problem of how
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This article describes research investigating the on-line processing of language in unscripted conversational settings. In particular, we focus on the process of formulating and interpreting definite referring expressions. Within this domain we present results of two eye-tracking experiments addressing the problem of how speakers interrogate the referential domain in preparation to speak, how they select an appropriate expression for a given referent, and how addressees interpret these expressions. We aim to demonstrate that it is possible, and indeed fruitful, to examine unscripted, conversational language using modified experimental designs and standard hypothesis testing procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition and Communication)
Open AccessArticle Floridi’s “Open Problems in Philosophy of Information”, Ten Years Later
Information 2011, 2(2), 327-359; doi:10.3390/info2020327
Received: 7 April 2011 / Revised: 2 May 2011 / Accepted: 12 May 2011 / Published: 23 May 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In his article Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information [1] Luciano Floridi presented a Philosophy of Information research program in the form of eighteen open problems, covering the following fundamental areas: Information definition, information semantics, intelligence/cognition, informational universe/nature and values/ethics. We revisit
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In his article Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information [1] Luciano Floridi presented a Philosophy of Information research program in the form of eighteen open problems, covering the following fundamental areas: Information definition, information semantics, intelligence/cognition, informational universe/nature and values/ethics. We revisit Floridi’s program, highlighting some of the major advances, commenting on unsolved problems and rendering the new landscape of the Philosophy of Information (PI) emerging at present. As we analyze the progress of PI we try to situate Floridi’s program in the context of scientific and technological development that have been made last ten years. We emphasize that Philosophy of Information is a huge and vibrant research field, with its origins dating before Open Problems, and its domains extending even outside their scope. In this paper, we have been able only to sketch some of the developments during the past ten years. Our hope is that, even if fragmentary, this review may serve as a contribution to the effort of understanding the present state of the art and the paths of development of Philosophy of Information as seen through the lens of Open Problems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pervasive Computing, Privacy and Distribution of the Self
Information 2011, 2(2), 360-371; doi:10.3390/info2020360
Received: 5 April 2011 / Accepted: 20 May 2011 / Published: 27 May 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of what is commonly known as “ambient intelligence” or “ubiquitous computing” means that our conception of privacy and trust needs to be reconsidered. Many have voiced their concerns about the threat to privacy and the more prominent role of trust that
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The emergence of what is commonly known as “ambient intelligence” or “ubiquitous computing” means that our conception of privacy and trust needs to be reconsidered. Many have voiced their concerns about the threat to privacy and the more prominent role of trust that have been brought about by emerging technologies. In this paper, I will present an investigation of what this means for the self and identity in our ambient intelligence environment. Since information about oneself can be actively distributed and processed, it is proposed that in a significant sense it is the self itself that is distributed throughout a pervasive or ubiquitous computing network when information pertaining to the self of the individual travels through the network. Hence privacy protection needs to be extended to all types of information distributed. It is also recommended that appropriately strong legislation on privacy and data protection regarding this pervasive network is necessary, but at present not sufficient, to ensure public trust. What is needed is a campaign on public awareness and positive perception of the technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trust and Privacy in Our Networked World)
Open AccessArticle Toward a New Science of Information
Information 2011, 2(2), 372-382; doi:10.3390/info2020372
Received: 4 May 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 9 June 2011 / Published: 16 June 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (58 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, a Science of Information does not exist. What we have is Information Science that grew out of Library and Documentation Science with the help of Computer Science. The basic understanding of information in Information Science is the Shannon type of “information” at
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Currently, a Science of Information does not exist. What we have is Information Science that grew out of Library and Documentation Science with the help of Computer Science. The basic understanding of information in Information Science is the Shannon type of “information” at which numerous criticisms have been levelled so far. The task of an as-yet-to-be-developed Science of Information would be to study the feasibility of, and to advance, approaches toward a more general Theory of Information and toward a common concept of information. What scientific requirements need to be met when trying to develop a Science of Information? What are the aims of a Science of Information? What is the scope of a Science of Information? What tools should a Science of Information make use of? The present paper responds to these questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "FIS 2010 Beijing")

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