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Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases
Department of Community Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
Professorship of Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Center for Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, University Witten/Herdecke, Gerhard-Kienle-Weg 4, D-58313 Herdecke, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2010; in revised form: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 December 2010 / Published: 8 December 2010
Abstract: Background: Research has examined the connection between religiosity, spirituality (SpR) and health, and the potential of these variables to prevent, heal and cope with disease. Research indicated that participation in religious meetings or services was associated with a lower risk of developing oral disease. We intended to test a Hebrew version of the SpREUK 1.1 questionnaire, which is reported to be a reliable and valid measure of distinctive issues of SpR, and to test its relevance in the context of oral illness among a Jewish population. Methods: In order to validate the SpREUK-Hebrew instrument, minor translational and cultural/religious adaptations were applied. Reliability and factor analyses were performed, using standard procedures, among 134 Jewish Israeli subjects (mean age 38.4 years). Results: Analysis of reliability for internal consistency demonstrated an intra-class correlation of Cronbach's alpha = 0.90 for the intrinsic religiosity/spiritual and the appraisal scales, and of 0.90 for the support through spirituality/religiosity scales. Inter reliability agreement by kappa ranged between 0.7 and 0.9. We were able to approve the previously described factorial structure, albeit with some unique characteristics in the Jewish population. Individuals´ time spent on spiritual activity correlated with the SpREUK scales. The instrument discriminated well between religious subgroups (i.e., ultra Orthodox, conventional religious and less-religious). Preliminary results indicate an association between measures of spirituality and oral health. Conclusions: The traditional and cultural adaptation of the tool was found to be appropriate. SpREUK-Hebrew was reliable and valid among a Jewish population. This method could therefore be employed in comparative studies among different cultural and religious backgrounds.
Keywords: spirituality; religiosity; SpREUK questionnaire; coping with health; oral health
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Zini, A.; Büssing, A.; Sgan-Cohen, H.D. Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases. Religions 2010, 1, 86-104.
Zini A, Büssing A, Sgan-Cohen HD. Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases. Religions. 2010; 1(1):86-104.
Zini, Avraham; Büssing, Arndt; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D. 2010. "Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases." Religions 1, no. 1: 86-104.