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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 25; doi:10.3390/jmse4010025

Atmospheric Layers in Response to the Propagation of Gravity Waves under Nonisothermal, Wind-shear, and Dissipative Conditions

California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
Academic Editor: Billy Edge
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
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We study the atmospheric structure in response to the propagation of gravity waves under nonisothermal (nonzero vertical temperature gradient), wind-shear (nonzero vertical zonal/meridional wind speed gradients), and dissipative (nonzero molecular viscosity and thermal conduction) conditions. As an alternative to the “complex wave-frequency” model proposed by Vadas and Fritts, we employ the traditional “complex vertical wave-number” approach to solving an eighth-order complex polynomial dispersion equation. The empirical neutral atmospheric models of NRLMSISE-00 and HWM93 are employed to provide mean-field properties. In response to the propagation of gravity waves, the atmosphere is driven into three sandwich-like layers: the adiabatic layer (0–130 km), the dissipation layer (130–230 km) and the pseudo-adiabatic layer (above 230 km). In the lower layer, (extended-)Hines’ mode or ordinary dissipative wave modes exist, whereas viscous dissipation and thermal conduction fail to exert perceptible influences; in the middle layer, Hines’ mode ceases to exist, and both ordinary and extraordinary dissipative wave modes flourish; in the top layer, only extraordinary wave modes survive, and dissipations affect the real part of the vertical wavenumber ( m r ) substantially; however, they contribute little to the imaginary part, which is the vertical growth rate ( m i ). We also analyze the transition of Hines’ classical mode to ordinary dissipative wave modes, describe both the upward and downward modes of gravity waves and illustrate nonisothermal and wind-shear effects on the propagation of gravity waves of different modes. View Full-Text
Keywords: seismic tsunami; gravity wave; atmospheric layer seismic tsunami; gravity wave; atmospheric layer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ma, J.Z.G. Atmospheric Layers in Response to the Propagation of Gravity Waves under Nonisothermal, Wind-shear, and Dissipative Conditions. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 25.

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