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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 25; doi:10.3390/jmse4010025

Atmospheric Layers in Response to the Propagation of Gravity Waves under Nonisothermal, Wind-shear, and Dissipative Conditions

California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
Academic Editor: Billy Edge
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
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Abstract

We study the atmospheric structure in response to the propagation of gravity waves under nonisothermal (nonzero vertical temperature gradient), wind-shear (nonzero vertical zonal/meridional wind speed gradients), and dissipative (nonzero molecular viscosity and thermal conduction) conditions. As an alternative to the “complex wave-frequency” model proposed by Vadas and Fritts, we employ the traditional “complex vertical wave-number” approach to solving an eighth-order complex polynomial dispersion equation. The empirical neutral atmospheric models of NRLMSISE-00 and HWM93 are employed to provide mean-field properties. In response to the propagation of gravity waves, the atmosphere is driven into three sandwich-like layers: the adiabatic layer (0–130 km), the dissipation layer (130–230 km) and the pseudo-adiabatic layer (above 230 km). In the lower layer, (extended-)Hines’ mode or ordinary dissipative wave modes exist, whereas viscous dissipation and thermal conduction fail to exert perceptible influences; in the middle layer, Hines’ mode ceases to exist, and both ordinary and extraordinary dissipative wave modes flourish; in the top layer, only extraordinary wave modes survive, and dissipations affect the real part of the vertical wavenumber ( m r ) substantially; however, they contribute little to the imaginary part, which is the vertical growth rate ( m i ). We also analyze the transition of Hines’ classical mode to ordinary dissipative wave modes, describe both the upward and downward modes of gravity waves and illustrate nonisothermal and wind-shear effects on the propagation of gravity waves of different modes. View Full-Text
Keywords: seismic tsunami; gravity wave; atmospheric layer seismic tsunami; gravity wave; atmospheric layer
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Ma, J.Z.G. Atmospheric Layers in Response to the Propagation of Gravity Waves under Nonisothermal, Wind-shear, and Dissipative Conditions. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 25.

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