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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1334-1348; doi:10.3390/jmse3041334

Human Genotoxic Study Carried Out Two Years after Oil Exposure during the Clean-up Activities Using Two Different Biomarkers

1
Unitat de Biologia Cel·lular i Genètica Mèdica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193-Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
2
Unitat de Bioestadística i Institut de Neurociències, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193-Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
3
Centre de Recerca en Epidemiologia Ambiental (CREAL), 08003-Barcelona, Spain
4
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002-Barcelona, Spain
5
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029-Madrid, Spain
6
Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, 28040-Madrid, Spain
7
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid, Spain
8
CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Bunyola, 07004-Mallorca, Spain
9
Departamento de Medicina Respiratòria, Hospital Clínic-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036-Barcelona, Spain
10
Departamento de Medicina Respiratoria, Unidad Epidemiologia Clínica, Hospital 12 de Octubre, 28047-Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Merv Fingas
Received: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1258 KB, uploaded 3 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Micronuclei, comet and chromosome alterations assays are the most widely used biomarkers for determining the genotoxic damage in a population exposed to genotoxic chemicals. While chromosome alterations are an excellent biomarker to detect short- and long-term genotoxic effects, the comet assay only measures early biological effects, and furthermore it is unknown whether nuclear abnormalies, such as those measured in the micronucleus test, remain detectable long-term after an acute exposure. In our previous study, an increase in structural chromosome alterations in fishermen involved in the clean-up of the Prestige oil spill, two years after acute exposure, was detected. The aim of this study is to investigate whether, in lymphocytes from peripheral blood, the nuclear abnormalies (micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds) have a similar sensitivity to the chromosome damage analysis for genotoxic detection two years after oil exposure in the same non-smoker individuals and in the same peripheral blood extraction. No significant differences in nuclear abnormalies frequencies between exposed and non-exposed individuals were found (p > 0.05). However, chromosome damage, in the same individuals, was higher in exposed vs. non-exposed individuals, especially for chromosome lesions (p < 0.05). These findings, despite the small sample size, suggest that nuclear abnormalities are probably less-successful biomarkers than are chromosome alterations to evaluate genotoxic effects two or more years after an exposure to oil. Due to the great advantage of micronucleus automatic determination, which allows for a rapid study of hundreds of individuals exposed to genotoxic chemical exposure, further studies are needed to confirm whether this assay is or is not useful in long-term genotoxic studies after the toxic agent is no longer present. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronucleus test; chromosome damage; nuclear abnormities; chromosome alterations; oil exposure; genotoxicity; Prestige catastrophe micronucleus test; chromosome damage; nuclear abnormities; chromosome alterations; oil exposure; genotoxicity; Prestige catastrophe
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Biern, G.; Giraldo, J.; Zock, J.-P.; Monyarch, G.; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Gómez, F.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Barberà, J.-A.; Fuster, C. Human Genotoxic Study Carried Out Two Years after Oil Exposure during the Clean-up Activities Using Two Different Biomarkers. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3, 1334-1348.

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