Next Article in Journal
Fusarium Wilt Affecting Chickpea Crop
Previous Article in Journal
Suppression of CH4 Emission by Rice Straw Removal  and Application of Bio‐Ethanol Production Residue  in a Paddy Field in Akita, Japan
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Agriculture 2017, 7(3), 22; doi:10.3390/agriculture7030022

Development and Evaluation of Poly Herbal Molluscicidal Extracts for Control of Apple Snail (Pomacea maculata)

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Bedong-Semeling Road, Semeling, 08100 Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Les Copeland
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [654 KB, uploaded 9 March 2017]   |  


Golden Apple Snail (GAS) is the most destructive invasive rice pest in Southeast Asia. The cost of synthetic molluscicides, their toxicity to non-target organisms, and their persistence in the environment have propelled the research of plant-derived molluscicides. Most research efforts have focused on individual plant extracts for their molluscicidal potency against GAS and have not been proven to be entirely effective in rice field conditions. Selective combination of synergistically acting molluscicidal compounds from various plant extracts might be an effective alternative. In this direction, ethanolic extracts from six different plants (Neem, Tobacco, Nerium, Pongamia, Zinger, and Piper) were evaluated against Pomacea maculata Perry. Of the various combinations studied, a binary extract (1:1) of nerium and tobacco (LC90 177.71 mg/L, 48 h), and two tri-herbal extract formulations (1:1:1) of (nerium + tobacco + piper) and (nerium + tobacco + neem) were found to be most effective, with LC90 values of 180.35 mg/L and 191.52 mg/L, respectively, in laboratory conditions. The synergistic effect of combined herbal extracts resulted in significant reduction in LC90 values of the individual extracts. The findings of this study demonstrate that the selective combinations of potent molluscicidal herbal extracts are effective for management of P. maculata under laboratory conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: golden apple snail; plant molluscicides; poly herbal extracts; Pomacea maculata golden apple snail; plant molluscicides; poly herbal extracts; Pomacea maculata

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Prabhakaran, G.; Bhore, S.J.; Ravichandran, M. Development and Evaluation of Poly Herbal Molluscicidal Extracts for Control of Apple Snail (Pomacea maculata). Agriculture 2017, 7, 22.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agriculture EISSN 2077-0472 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top