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Agriculture 2017, 7(11), 91; doi:10.3390/agriculture7110091

The Physical Chemistry of Pesticides in Soil and Water

Department of Chemistry, Saint Mary’s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3, Canada
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides in Agriculture System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1082 KB, uploaded 30 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Soils are the ultimate examples of physically and chemically irregular mixtures. They are also dynamic. Early investigators consequently did not understand the physical chemistry of pesticides in soil and water. By taking shortcuts instead of trying to understand the physical chemistry, they measured the wrong variables, used the wrong units, calculated the wrong parameters, and totally ignored chemical stoichiometry. Theoretical concepts for the physical chemistry of pesticides in soil have been published during the last quarter century. They are experimentally supported. Yet, chemically incorrect descriptions persist in the literature to this day. That has serious environmental and economic consequences. In particular, government regulators make legally binding pesticide decisions based on computer predictions that are wrong by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. This needs the attention of scientists, governments, and multinational corporations. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical chemistry soils; pesticides soil and water; pesticide soil stoichiometry; pesticide soil kinetics; pesticide regulatory flaws physical chemistry soils; pesticides soil and water; pesticide soil stoichiometry; pesticide soil kinetics; pesticide regulatory flaws
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gamble, D.S. The Physical Chemistry of Pesticides in Soil and Water. Agriculture 2017, 7, 91.

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