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Agriculture 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/agriculture7010007

Rice Cultivation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review and Conceptual Framework with Reference to Ghana

1
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, UPO, Kumasi, KNUST, Ghana
2
Technology Consultancy Center, College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, UPO, Kumasi, KNUST, Ghana
3
Barret, The Honors College, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ryusuke Hatano
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [528 KB, uploaded 20 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Rice is an essential crop in Ghana. Several aspects of rice have been studied to increase its production; however, the environmental aspects, including impact on climate change, have not been studied well. There is therefore a gap in knowledge, and hence the need for continuous research. By accessing academic portals, such as Springer Open, InTech Open, Elsevier, and the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology’s offline campus library, 61 academic publications including peer reviewed journals, books, working papers, reports, etc. were critically reviewed. It was found that there is a lack of data on how paddy rice production systems affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly emissions estimation, geographical location, and crops. Regarding GHG emission estimation, the review identified the use of emission factors calibrated using temperate conditions which do not suit tropical conditions. On location, most research on rice GHG emissions have been carried out in Asia with little input from Africa. In regard to crops, there is paucity of in-situ emissions data from paddy fields in Ghana. Drawing on the review, a conceptual framework is developed using Ghana as reference point to guide the discussion on fertilizer application, water management rice cultivars, and soil for future development of adaptation strategies for rice emission reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ghana; rice production; greenhouse gas emissions; smallholder farming Ghana; rice production; greenhouse gas emissions; smallholder farming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boateng, K.K.; Obeng, G.Y.; Mensah, E. Rice Cultivation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review and Conceptual Framework with Reference to Ghana. Agriculture 2017, 7, 7.

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