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Agriculture 2014, 4(3), 239-259; doi:10.3390/agriculture4030239

Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS) Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries

1
Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design, West Virginia University, 322 Percival Hall, P.O. Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26506-6125, USA
2
West Virginia University Extension Service, West Virginia University, G-006 Agricultural Science Building, P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 August 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
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Abstract

Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS), a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS) and spent osmotic solution (SOS) generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis) hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: osmotic dehydration; fruit dehydration; blueberry; spent osmotic solution; hydrochar; hydrothermal carbonization; thermo-gravimetry; activation energy; carbon microspheres osmotic dehydration; fruit dehydration; blueberry; spent osmotic solution; hydrochar; hydrothermal carbonization; thermo-gravimetry; activation energy; carbon microspheres
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, K.; Sivanandan, L. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS) Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries. Agriculture 2014, 4, 239-259.

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