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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(4), 44; doi:10.3390/jcm5040044

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David A. Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva and Jonas Fuxe
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition)
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Abstract

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: epithelial to mesenchymal transition; cigarette smoke; drug resistance; metastasis; and lung cancer epithelial to mesenchymal transition; cigarette smoke; drug resistance; metastasis; and lung cancer
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Vu, T.; Jin, L.; Datta, P.K. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 44.

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