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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/jcm5020025

Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

1
Wageningen University and Research Centre, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands
2
Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, University of Auckland; Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lindsay Brown, Bernhard Rauch and Hemant Poudyal
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1879 KB, uploaded 15 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; cancer; single nucleotide polymorphism; eicosanoids; genotype long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; cancer; single nucleotide polymorphism; eicosanoids; genotype
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Lenihan-Geels, G.; Bishop, K.S.; Ferguson, L.R. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 25.

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