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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 1102-1112; doi:10.3390/jcm4051102

Intracranial CNS Manifestations of Myeloid Sarcoma in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Review of the Literature and Three Case Reports from the Author’s Institution

Department of Neuroradiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Celalettin Ustun and Lucy A. Godley
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AML in the Molecular Age: From Biology to Clinical Management)
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Abstract

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare presentation of leukemic mass infiltration outside of the bone marrow. It may involve the subperiosteum and dura mater and, on rare occasions, can also invade the brain parenchyma. The disease is most commonly seen in children or young adults; however, it has been described in multiple age groups. MS can be seen in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. This entity has the potential to be underdiagnosed if the MS appearance precedes the first diagnosis of leukemia. The main reason is that their appearance on CT and MRI has a broad differential diagnosis, and proper diagnosis of MS can only be made if the imaging findings are correlated with the clinical history and laboratory findings. Herein, we describe the intracranial CNS manifestations of MS in patients with AML on CT and MRI involving the brain and/or meninges. This study is based on a systematic review of the literature. In addition, three case reports from the author’s institution with AML and intracranial involvement of MS are included. Our aim is to enhance the awareness of this entity among both clinicians and radiologists. View Full-Text
Keywords: AML; acute myeloid leukemia; leukemia; myeloid sarcoma; extramedullary disease; chloroma; intracranial; central nervous system; brain; spine AML; acute myeloid leukemia; leukemia; myeloid sarcoma; extramedullary disease; chloroma; intracranial; central nervous system; brain; spine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cervantes, G.M.; Cayci, Z. Intracranial CNS Manifestations of Myeloid Sarcoma in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Review of the Literature and Three Case Reports from the Author’s Institution. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1102-1112.

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