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J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(3), 959-971; doi:10.3390/jcm3030959

Alterations in Skin Temperature and Sleep in the Fear of Harm Phenotype of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

1,†
,
1,†
and
1,2,†,*
1
Parallax Innovations LLC, 22 Crescent Rd., Westport, CT 06880, USA
2
The Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation, 277 Martine Avenue, White Plains, NY 10601, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents)
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Abstract

In children diagnosed with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), disturbances in the quality of sleep and wakefulness are prominent. A novel phenotype of PBD called Fear of Harm (FOH) associated with separation anxiety and aggressive obsessions is associated with sleep onset insomnia, parasomnias (nightmares, night-terrors, enuresis), REM sleep-related problems, and morning sleep inertia. Children with FOH often experience thermal discomfort (e.g., feeling hot, excessive sweating) in neutral ambient temperature conditions, as well as no discomfort during exposure to the extreme cold, and alternate noticeably between being excessively hot in the evening and cold in the morning. We hypothesized that these sleep- and temperature-related symptoms were overt symptoms of an impaired ability to dissipate heat, particularly in the evening hours near the time of sleep onset. We measured sleep/wake variables using actigraphy, and nocturnal skin temperature variables using thermal patches and a wireless device, and compared these data between children with PBD/FOH and a control sample of healthy children. The results are suggestive of a thermoregulatory dysfunction that is associated with sleep onset difficulties. Further, they are consistent with our hypothesis that alterations in neural circuitry common to thermoregulation and emotion regulation underlie affective and behavioral symptoms of the FOH phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric bipolar disorder; Fear of Harm; phenotype; thermoregulatory deficit; distal-proximal temperature gradient; sleep disturbance; parasomnias; sleep-onset latency; sleep diary; actigraphy pediatric bipolar disorder; Fear of Harm; phenotype; thermoregulatory deficit; distal-proximal temperature gradient; sleep disturbance; parasomnias; sleep-onset latency; sleep diary; actigraphy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murphy, P.J.; Frei, M.G.; Papolos, D. Alterations in Skin Temperature and Sleep in the Fear of Harm Phenotype of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 959-971.

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