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J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(1), 197-215; doi:10.3390/jcm3010197
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Towards a Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Regeneration of the Sphincter Muscle

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Received: 13 December 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Stem Cell Treatments)
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Abstract: Stress urinary incontinence is a significant social, medical, and economic problem. It is caused, at least in part, by degeneration of the sphincter muscle controlling the tightness of the urinary bladder. This muscular degeneration is characterized by a loss of muscle cells and a surplus of a fibrous connective tissue. In Western countries approximately 15% of all females and 10% of males are affected. The incidence is significantly higher among senior citizens, and more than 25% of the elderly suffer from incontinence. When other therapies, such as physical exercise, pharmacological intervention, or electrophysiological stimulation of the sphincter fail to improve the patient’s conditions, a cell-based therapy may improve the function of the sphincter muscle. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge on stem cells suitable for therapy of urinary incontinence: mesenchymal stromal cells, urine-derived stem cells, and muscle-derived satellite cells. In addition, we report on ways to improve techniques for surgical navigation, injection of cells in the sphincter muscle, sensors for evaluation of post-treatment therapeutic outcome, and perspectives derived from recent pre-clinical studies.
Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cells; mesenchymal stem cells; urinary stress incontinence; stem cell application; urodynamics; cell injection techniques mesenchymal stromal cells; mesenchymal stem cells; urinary stress incontinence; stem cell application; urodynamics; cell injection techniques
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aicher, W.K.; Hart, M.L.; Stallkamp, J.; Klünder, M.; Ederer, M.; Sawodny, O.; Vaegler, M.; Amend, B.; Sievert, K.D.; Stenzl, A. Towards a Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Regeneration of the Sphincter Muscle. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 197-215.

AMA Style

Aicher WK, Hart ML, Stallkamp J, Klünder M, Ederer M, Sawodny O, Vaegler M, Amend B, Sievert KD, Stenzl A. Towards a Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Regeneration of the Sphincter Muscle. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2014; 3(1):197-215.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Hart, Melanie L.; Stallkamp, Jan; Klünder, Mario; Ederer, Michael; Sawodny, Oliver; Vaegler, Martin; Amend, Bastian; Sievert, Karl D.; Stenzl, Arnulf. 2014. "Towards a Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Regeneration of the Sphincter Muscle." J. Clin. Med. 3, no. 1: 197-215.

J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert