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Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging
J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(1), 197-215; doi:10.3390/jcm3010197
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Towards a Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Regeneration of the Sphincter Muscle

1,* , 1
, 2
, 3
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 and 1,4
1 KFO273, Department of Urology, University of Tuebingen Hospital, Tuebingen 72076, Germany 2 FRAUNHOFER Institute, Klinikum Mannhein, Mannheim 68167, Germany 3 Department for Systems Dynamics, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart 70569, Germany 4 Department of Urology, University of Tuebingen Hospital, Tuebingen 72076, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Stem Cell Treatments)
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Abstract

Stress urinary incontinence is a significant social, medical, and economic problem. It is caused, at least in part, by degeneration of the sphincter muscle controlling the tightness of the urinary bladder. This muscular degeneration is characterized by a loss of muscle cells and a surplus of a fibrous connective tissue. In Western countries approximately 15% of all females and 10% of males are affected. The incidence is significantly higher among senior citizens, and more than 25% of the elderly suffer from incontinence. When other therapies, such as physical exercise, pharmacological intervention, or electrophysiological stimulation of the sphincter fail to improve the patient’s conditions, a cell-based therapy may improve the function of the sphincter muscle. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge on stem cells suitable for therapy of urinary incontinence: mesenchymal stromal cells, urine-derived stem cells, and muscle-derived satellite cells. In addition, we report on ways to improve techniques for surgical navigation, injection of cells in the sphincter muscle, sensors for evaluation of post-treatment therapeutic outcome, and perspectives derived from recent pre-clinical studies.
Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cells; mesenchymal stem cells; urinary stress incontinence; stem cell application; urodynamics; cell injection techniques mesenchymal stromal cells; mesenchymal stem cells; urinary stress incontinence; stem cell application; urodynamics; cell injection techniques
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Aicher, W.K.; Hart, M.L.; Stallkamp, J.; Klünder, M.; Ederer, M.; Sawodny, O.; Vaegler, M.; Amend, B.; Sievert, K.D.; Stenzl, A. Towards a Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Application of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Regeneration of the Sphincter Muscle. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 197-215.

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