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The Regenerative Role of the Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Secretome
Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Experimental Medicine (DIMES), University of Genoa, IRCCS AOU San Martino—IST, National Institute for Cancer Research, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, Genoa 16132, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2013; in revised form: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Abstract: For a long time, the stem cell regenerative paradigm has been based on the assumption that progenitor cells play a critical role in tissue repair by means of their plasticity and differentiation potential. However, recent works suggest that the mechanism underlying the benefits of stem cell transplantation might relate to a paracrine modulatory effect rather than the replacement of affected cells at the site of injury. Therefore, mounting evidence that stem cells may act as a reservoir of trophic signals released to modulate the surrounding tissue has led to a paradigm shift in regenerative medicine. Attention has been shifted from analysis of the stem cell genome to understanding the stem cell “secretome”, which is represented by the growth factors, cytokines and chemokines produced through paracrine secretion. Insights into paracrine-mediated repair support a new approach in regenerative medicine and the isolation and administration of specific stem cell-derived paracrine factors may represent an extremely promising strategy, introducing paracrine-based therapy as a novel and feasible clinical application. In this review, we will discuss the regenerative potential of fetal and adult stem cells, with particular attention to their secretome.
Keywords: stem cells; paracrine effect; secretome; microvesicles; trophic factors; tissue repair
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Bollini, S.; Gentili, C.; Tasso, R.; Cancedda, R. The Regenerative Role of the Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Secretome. J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2, 302-327.
Bollini S, Gentili C, Tasso R, Cancedda R. The Regenerative Role of the Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Secretome. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2013; 2(4):302-327.
Bollini, Sveva; Gentili, Chiara; Tasso, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri. 2013. "The Regenerative Role of the Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Secretome." J. Clin. Med. 2, no. 4: 302-327.