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Membranes 2017, 7(2), 23; doi:10.3390/membranes7020023

Foulant Analysis of Three RO Membranes Used in Treating Simulated Brackish Water of the Iraqi Marshes

1
Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering, The University of Mustansiriyah, Baghdad 12015, Iraq
2
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 207 Engineering South, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohamed Khayet
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 2 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017

Abstract

In this work, three different types of Reverse Osmosis (RO) (Thin-Film Composite (SE), Cellulose Acetate (CE), and Polyamide (AD)) were used to perform foulant analysis (autopsy) study on the deposited materials from three different simulated brackish surface feed waters. The brackish surface water qualities represented the water quality in Iraqi marshes. The main foulants from the simulated feed waters were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS) spectra. The effect of feed water temperatures (37 °C and 11 °C) on the formation of the fouled material deposited on the membrane surface was examined in this study. Also, pretreatment by a 0.1 micron microfiltration (MF) membrane of the simulated feed water in advance of the RO membrane on the precipitated material on the membrane surface was investigated. Finally, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was used to identify the functional groups of the organic matter deposited on the RO membrane surfaces. The SEM images and EDSX spectra suggested that the fouled material was mainly organic matter, and the major crystal deposited on the RO membrane was calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The FTIR spectra of the fouled RO membranes suggested that the constituents of the fouled material included aliphatic and aromatic compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: brackish water; reverse osmosis; fouling; foulant analysis brackish water; reverse osmosis; fouling; foulant analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sachit, D.E.; Veenstra, J.N. Foulant Analysis of Three RO Membranes Used in Treating Simulated Brackish Water of the Iraqi Marshes. Membranes 2017, 7, 23.

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