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Membranes 2014, 4(3), 596-607; doi:10.3390/membranes4030596
Article

Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

1,* , 2
, 2
 and 1
Received: 29 June 2014; in revised form: 28 July 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Bioprocesses and Bioreactors)
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Abstract: Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.
Keywords: MBR; encapsulation; anaerobic digestion; d-limonene; citrus waste MBR; encapsulation; anaerobic digestion; d-limonene; citrus waste
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wikandari, R.; Millati, R.; Cahyanto, M.N.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor. Membranes 2014, 4, 596-607.

AMA Style

Wikandari R, Millati R, Cahyanto MN, Taherzadeh MJ. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor. Membranes. 2014; 4(3):596-607.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad N.; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. 2014. "Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor." Membranes 4, no. 3: 596-607.



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