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Membranes 2014, 4(3), 509-524; doi:10.3390/membranes4030509

Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via Pietro Bucci, 17/C, I-87036 Rende (CS), Italy
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Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Hybrid Processes)
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Abstract

Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: orange press liquor; ultrafiltration (UF); nanofiltration (NF); osmotic distillation (OD); integrated membrane processes; flavonoids orange press liquor; ultrafiltration (UF); nanofiltration (NF); osmotic distillation (OD); integrated membrane processes; flavonoids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cassano, A.; Conidi, C.; Ruby-Figueroa, R. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process. Membranes 2014, 4, 509-524.

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