Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Chain Structures on the Crystallization Behavior and Membrane Formation of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Copolymers
Next Article in Special Issue
On The Relationship between Suspended Solids of Different Size, the Observed Boundary Flux and Rejection Values for Membranes Treating a Civil Wastewater Stream
Previous Article in Journal
Polymeric Pseudo-Liquid Membranes from Poly(N-oleylacrylamide)
Membranes 2014, 4(2), 227-242; doi:10.3390/membranes4020227
Article

Filtration Characterization Method as Tool to Assess Membrane Bioreactor Sludge Filterability—The Delft Experience

1,* , 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 1
 and 7
1 Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, Delft 2600 GA, The Netherlands 2 Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section Water Supply and Sanitation Technology, Gaustadalléen 21, Oslo N-0349, Norway 3 Waterboard Hollandse Delta, P.O. Box 4103, Ridderkerk 2980 GC, The Netherlands 4 Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies, 12 Clematis Ave, Waltham, MA 02453, USA 5 Grundfos BioBooster A/S, Randersvej 22a, Langå DK-8870, Denmark 6 Waterboard Groot Salland, P.O. Box 60, Zwolle 8000 AB, The Netherlands 7 Witteveen+Bos, van Twickelostraat 2, P.O. Box 233, Deventer 7400 AE, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Hybrid Processes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [282 KB, 8 May 2014; original version 30 April 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs), responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm) as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.
Keywords: membrane bioreactors; fouling; activated sludge; filterability; delft filtration characterization method (DFCm) membrane bioreactors; fouling; activated sludge; filterability; delft filtration characterization method (DFCm)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Lousada-Ferreira, M.; Krzeminski, P.; Geilvoet, S.; Moreau, A.; Gil, J.A.; Evenblij, H.; van Lier, J.B.; van der Graaf, J.H.J.M. Filtration Characterization Method as Tool to Assess Membrane Bioreactor Sludge Filterability—The Delft Experience. Membranes 2014, 4, 227-242.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Membranes EISSN 2077-0375 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert