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Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control
Singapore Membrane Technology Centre, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One #06-08, Singapore 637141, Singapore
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2012; in revised form: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Abstract: Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to the evolution of membrane fouling in order to identify a suitable fouling control approach in MBRs. This review summarized the factors in MBRs that influence microbial behaviors (community compositions, physical properties, and microbial products). The state-of-the-art techniques to characterize biofoulants in MBRs were reported. The strategies for controlling microbial relevant fouling were discussed and the future studies on membrane fouling mechanisms in MBRs were proposed.
Keywords: extracellular polymeric substances; membrane fouling; microbial community structure; microbial flocs; microbial soluble substances
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wu, B.; Fane, A.G. Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control. Membranes 2012, 2, 565-584.
Wu B, Fane AG. Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control. Membranes. 2012; 2(3):565-584.
Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G. 2012. "Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control." Membranes 2, no. 3: 565-584.