Membranes 2012, 2(4), 804-840; doi:10.3390/membranes2040804
Review

Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

Received: 3 August 2012; in revised form: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water Purification)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area.
Keywords: membrane biofouling; biofilm; extracellular polymeric substances; biofouling control; biofouling monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, T.; Roddick, F.A.; Fan, L. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures. Membranes 2012, 2, 804-840.

AMA Style

Nguyen T, Roddick FA, Fan L. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures. Membranes. 2012; 2(4):804-840.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua. 2012. "Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures." Membranes 2, no. 4: 804-840.

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