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Vaccines 2017, 5(2), 15; doi:10.3390/vaccines5020015

Reemergence of Measles in the Americas: The Genotype B3 2011–2012 Outbreak in Ecuador

Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Center for Evidence Based Medicine and Health Outcomes Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Department. of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
School of Medicine, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabi, Manta 13052732, Ecuador
School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, Quito 170109, Ecuador
Department of Internal Medicine, Brandon Regional Hospital, Brandon, FL 33511, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rachel L. Roper
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1652 KB, uploaded 5 June 2017]   |  


This study characterizes a measles outbreak which occurred in Ecuador in 2011–2012, analyzing data from 3700 suspected cases of measles reported to Ecuador’s Ministry of Public Health. The study population had a large age range and included 333 confirmed cases of measles. The greatest number of cases were found in the <1 year (32.43%, n = 108) and 1–4 year (30.03%, n = 100) age-groups. Compared to Mestizos, indigenous people had the highest number of cases (68.2%, n = 227), as well as a higher risk of infection (OR 7.278 (CI 5.251–10.087)). The greatest protection from measles was observed in individuals who received two doses of the measles vaccine. Residents of Pastaza (OR 6.645 CI (3.183–13.873)) and Tungurahua (OR 8.346 CI (5.570–12.507)) had a higher risk of infection than the other provinces. Of the 17 laboratory confirmed cases, all were identified as genotype B3. Age-group, ethnicity, measles vaccinations, and residence in Tungurahua and Pastaza were correlated with rates of measles infection in the outbreak. Tungurahua and Pastaza, where the outbreak originated, have large indigenous populations. Indigenous children <1 year of age showed the highest incidence. It is likely that indigenous women do not have immunity to the virus, and so are unable to confer measles resistance to their newborns. View Full-Text
Keywords: measles; vaccinations; Ecuador; indigenous measles; vaccinations; Ecuador; indigenous

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Le, N.K.; Mhaskar, R.; Hoare, I.; Espinel, M.; Fernanda Rivadeneira, M.; Malavade, S.; Izurieta, R. Reemergence of Measles in the Americas: The Genotype B3 2011–2012 Outbreak in Ecuador. Vaccines 2017, 5, 15.

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