The Effect of Physicochemical Modification on the Function of Antibodies Induced by Anti-Nicotine Vaccine in Mice
AbstractSmoking remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One approach to assisting smoking cessation is via anti-nicotine vaccines, composed of nicotine-like haptens conjugated to a carrier protein plus adjuvant(s). We have previously shown that the carrier, hapten, linker, hapten load, degree of conjugate aggregation, and presence of adducts can each influence the function (nicotine-binding capacity) of the antibody (Ab) induced. Herein, we extend those findings and show that tertiary structure is also critical to the induction of functional immune responses and that this can be influenced by conjugation conditions. We evaluated immunogenicity in mice using six lots of NIC7-CRM, a conjugate of 5-aminoethoxy-nicotine (Hapten 7), and a single point (glycine 52 to glutamic acid) mutant nontoxic form of diphtheria toxin, cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197), which were synthesized under different reaction conditions resulting in conjugates with equivalent molecular characteristics (hapten load, aggregates, adducts), but a different tertiary structure. When tested in mice, better functional responses (reduced nicotine in the brain of immunized animals relative to non-immunized controls) were obtained with conjugates with a more closed structure than those with an open conformation. These studies highlight the need for a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of small molecule conjugate vaccines. View Full-Text
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Thorn, J.M.; Bhattacharya, K.; Crutcher, R.; Sperry, J.; Isele, C.; Kelly, B.; Yates, L.; Zobel, J.; Zhang, N.; Davis, H.L.; McCluskie, M.J. The Effect of Physicochemical Modification on the Function of Antibodies Induced by Anti-Nicotine Vaccine in Mice. Vaccines 2017, 5, 11.
Thorn JM, Bhattacharya K, Crutcher R, Sperry J, Isele C, Kelly B, Yates L, Zobel J, Zhang N, Davis HL, McCluskie MJ. The Effect of Physicochemical Modification on the Function of Antibodies Induced by Anti-Nicotine Vaccine in Mice. Vaccines. 2017; 5(2):11.Chicago/Turabian Style
Thorn, Jennifer M.; Bhattacharya, Keshab; Crutcher, Renata; Sperry, Justin; Isele, Colleen; Kelly, Barbara; Yates, Libbey; Zobel, James; Zhang, Ningli; Davis, Heather L.; McCluskie, Michael J. 2017. "The Effect of Physicochemical Modification on the Function of Antibodies Induced by Anti-Nicotine Vaccine in Mice." Vaccines 5, no. 2: 11.
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