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Vaccines 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/vaccines5010004

From Immunologically Archaic to Neoteric Glycovaccines

1
BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 18, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
2
Experimental Immunology, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alfredo G. Torres
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycopeptide-based and Related Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1392 KB, uploaded 27 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Polysaccharides (PS) are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory. Currently, protection evoked by conjugated PS vaccines lasts for a few years. The same approach failed with PS from staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella. All those germs cause severe infections in humans and often develop resistance to antibiotic therapy. Thereby, prevention is of increasing importance to better control outbreaks. As only 23 of more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes and 4 of 13 clinically relevant Neisseria meningitidis serogroups are covered by available vaccines there is still tremendous clinical need for PS vaccines. This review focuses on glycovaccines and the immunological mechanisms for their success or failure. We discuss recent advances that may facilitate generation of high affinity anti-PS antibodies and confer specific immunity and long-lasting protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; polysaccharide; serotype; conjugate; T cell help; immunosenescence vaccine; polysaccharide; serotype; conjugate; T cell help; immunosenescence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cavallari, M.; De Libero, G. From Immunologically Archaic to Neoteric Glycovaccines. Vaccines 2017, 5, 4.

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