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Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 41; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040041

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

1
Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, 16132 Genoa, Italy
2
Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Luxembourg City L-1526, Luxembourg
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Theresa L. Whiteside
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1779 KB, uploaded 8 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells’ growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells’ behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC. Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. Notably, MSC can inhibit the anti-tumor immune response through either carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells. Experimental data have indicated their relevance in regulating cytolytic effector lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cells; NKG2D-NKG2DL; innate immunity; γδ T cells; immune regulation; hematopoietic malignancies; immune escape; NK cells mesenchymal stromal cells; NKG2D-NKG2DL; innate immunity; γδ T cells; immune regulation; hematopoietic malignancies; immune escape; NK cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Poggi, A.; Giuliani, M. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment. Vaccines 2016, 4, 41.

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