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Vaccines, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Edwardsiella tarda OmpA Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Shows Superior Protection over Inactivated Whole Cell Vaccine in Orally Vaccinated Fringed-Lipped Peninsula Carp (Labeo fimbriatus)
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 40; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040040
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
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Abstract
The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral
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The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA) and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter <500 nm, encapsulation efficiency 60.6%, zeta potential +19.05 mV, and there was an in vitro release of 49% of encapsulated antigen within 48 h post incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Empty NPs and a non-formulated, inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine were used as controls. Post-vaccination antibody levels were significantly (p = 0.0458) higher in the NP-rOmpA vaccinated fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430) than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735), which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP) of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA) than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989) in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Co-Deliver Immunopotentiators and Antigens)
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Open AccessArticle The CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced by HPV-E6 Uploaded in Engineered Exosomes Is Improved by ISCOMATRIXTM Adjuvant
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 42; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040042
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of
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We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of tumors implanted before immunization. We looked for new protocols aimed at increasing the CD8+ T cell specific response to the antigen uploaded in engineered exosomes, assuming that an optimized CD8+ T cell immune response would correlate with a more effective depletion of tumor cells in the therapeutic setting. By considering HPV-E6 as a model of TAA, we found that the in vitro co-administration of engineered exosomes and ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant, i.e., an adjuvant composed of purified ISCOPREPTM saponin, cholesterol, and phospholipids, led to a stronger antigen cross-presentation in both B- lymphoblastoid cell lines ( and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells compared with that induced by the exosomes alone. Consistently, the co-inoculation in mice of ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant and engineered exosomes induced a significant increase of TAA-specific CD8+ T cells compared to mice immunized with the exosomes alone. This result holds promise for effective usage of exosomes as well as alternative nanovesicles in anti-tumor therapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Co-Deliver Immunopotentiators and Antigens)
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Open AccessArticle Homologous Prime-Boost Vaccination with OVA Entrapped in Self-Adjuvanting Archaeosomes Induces High Numbers of OVA-Specific CD8+ T Cells that Protect Against Subcutaneous B16-OVA Melanoma
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 44; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040044
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
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Abstract
Homologous prime-boost vaccinations with live vectors typically fail to induce repeated strong CD8+ T cell responses due to the induction of anti-vector immunity, highlighting the need for alternative delivery vehicles. The unique ether lipids of archaea may be constituted into liposomes, archaeosomes,
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Homologous prime-boost vaccinations with live vectors typically fail to induce repeated strong CD8+ T cell responses due to the induction of anti-vector immunity, highlighting the need for alternative delivery vehicles. The unique ether lipids of archaea may be constituted into liposomes, archaeosomes, which do not induce anti-carrier responses, making them an ideal candidate for use in repeat vaccination systems. Herein, we evaluated in mice the maximum threshold of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses that may be induced by multiple homologous immunizations with ovalbumin (OVA) entrapped in archaeosomes derived from the ether glycerolipids of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii (MS-OVA). Up to three immunizations with MS-OVA administered in optimized intervals (to allow for sufficient resting of the primed cells prior to boosting), induced a potent anti-OVA CD8+ T cell response of up to 45% of all circulating CD8+ T cells. Additional MS-OVA injections did not add any further benefit in increasing the memory of CD8+ T cell frequency. In contrast, OVA expressed by Listeria monocytogenes (LM-OVA), an intracellular bacterial vector failed to evoke a boosting effect after the second injection, resulting in significantly reduced antigen-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies. Furthermore, repeated vaccination with MS-OVA skewed the response increasingly towards an effector memory (CD62low) phenotype. Vaccinated animals were challenged with B16-OVA at late time points after vaccination (+7 months) and were afforded protection compared to control. Therefore, archaeosomes constituted a robust particulate delivery system to unravel the kinetics of CD8+ T cell response induction and memory maintenance and constitute an efficient vaccination regimen optimized for tumor protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Co-Administration of Lipid Nanoparticles and Sub-Unit Vaccine Antigens Is Required for Increase in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Mice
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 47; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040047
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery
[...] Read more.
A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h. We also evaluated formulations combining antigen, LNP, and aluminum-based adjuvant amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) to look for synergistic adjuvant effects. Analyses of antigen-specific B-cell and T-cell responses from immunized mice revealed that the LNPs and antigens must be co-administered—both at the same time and in the same location—in order to boost antigen-specific immune responses. Mixing of antigen with MAA prior to formulation with LNP did not impact the generation of antigen-specific B-cell responses, but drastically reduced the ability of LNPs to boost antigen-specific T-cell responses. Overall, our data demonstrate that the administration of LNPs and vaccine antigen together enables their immune-stimulatory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Co-Deliver Immunopotentiators and Antigens)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 41; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040041
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells’ growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells’ behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components.
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The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells’ growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells’ behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC. Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. Notably, MSC can inhibit the anti-tumor immune response through either carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells. Experimental data have indicated their relevance in regulating cytolytic effector lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Influenza and Memory T Cells: How to Awake the Force
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 33; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040033
Received: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract
Annual influenza vaccination is an effective way to prevent human influenza. Current vaccines are mainly focused on eliciting a strain-matched humoral immune response, requiring yearly updates, and do not provide protection for all vaccinated individuals. The past few years, the importance of cellular
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Annual influenza vaccination is an effective way to prevent human influenza. Current vaccines are mainly focused on eliciting a strain-matched humoral immune response, requiring yearly updates, and do not provide protection for all vaccinated individuals. The past few years, the importance of cellular immunity, and especially memory T cells, in long-lived protection against influenza virus has become clear. To overcome the shortcomings of current influenza vaccines, eliciting both humoral and cellular immunity is imperative. Today, several new vaccines such as infection-permissive and recombinant T cell inducing vaccines, are being developed and show promising results. These vaccines will allow us to stay several steps ahead of the constantly evolving influenza virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Memory to Vaccination)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Chemotherapy, Radiation and Epigenetic Modifiers in Cancer Cell Expression of Immune Inhibitory and Stimulatory Molecules and Anti-Tumor Efficacy
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 43; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040043
Received: 27 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
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Abstract
Genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers are used for the treatment of cancer due to their apoptotic effects on the aberrant cells. However, these therapies may also induce widespread changes within the immune system and cancer cells, which may
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Genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers are used for the treatment of cancer due to their apoptotic effects on the aberrant cells. However, these therapies may also induce widespread changes within the immune system and cancer cells, which may enable tumors to avoid immune surveillance and escape from host anti-tumor immunity. Genomic destabilizers can induce immunogenic death of tumor cells, but also induce upregulation of immune inhibitory ligands on drug-resistant cells, resulting in tumor progression. While administration of immunomodulatory antibodies that block the interactions between inhibitory receptors on immune cells and their ligands on tumor cells can mediate cancer regression in a subset of treated patients, it is crucial to understand how genomic destabilizers alter the immune system and malignant cells, including which inhibitory molecules, receptors and/or ligands are upregulated in response to genotoxic stress. Knowledge gained in this area will aid in the rational design of trials that combine genomic destabilizers, epigenetic modifiers and immunotherapeutic agents that may be synergized to improve clinical responses and prevent tumor escape from the immune system. Our review article describes the impact genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers have on anti-tumor immunity and the tumor microenvironment. Although genomic destabilizers cause DNA damage on cancer cells, these therapies can also have diverse effects on the immune system, promote immunogenic cell death or survival and alter the cancer cell expression of immune inhibitor molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles-Based Vaccine Adjuvants for Lymph Nodes Targeting
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 34; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040034
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
Vaccines have successfully eradicated a large number of diseases. However, some infectious diseases (such as HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis or Bacillus anthracis) keep spreading since there is no vaccine to prevent them. One way to overcome this issue is the development of new
[...] Read more.
Vaccines have successfully eradicated a large number of diseases. However, some infectious diseases (such as HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis or Bacillus anthracis) keep spreading since there is no vaccine to prevent them. One way to overcome this issue is the development of new adjuvant formulations which are able to induce the appropriate immune response without sacrificing safety. Lymph nodes are the site of lymphocyte priming by antigen-presenting cells and subsequent adaptive immune response, and are a promising target for vaccine formulations. In this review, we describe the properties of different polymer-based (e.g., poly lactic-co-glycolic acid, poly lactic acid …) particulate adjuvants as innovative systems, capable of co-delivering immunopotentiators and antigens. We point out how these nanoparticles enhance the delivery of antigens, and how their physicochemical properties modify their uptake by antigen-presenting cells and their migration into lymph nodes. We describe why polymeric nanoparticles increase the persistence into lymph nodes and promote a mature immune response. We also emphasize how nanodelivery directs the response to a specific antigen and allows the induction of a cytotoxic immune response, essential for the fight against intracellular pathogens or cancer. Finally, we highlight the interest of the association between polymer-based vaccines and immunopotentiators, which can potentiate the effect of the molecule by directing it to the appropriate compartment and reducing its toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Co-Deliver Immunopotentiators and Antigens)
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Open AccessReview Synthetic Biodegradable Microparticle and Nanoparticle Vaccines against the Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 45; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040045
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
Synthetic biodegradable microparticle and nanoparticle platform technology provides the opportunity to design particles varying in composition, size, shape and surface properties for application in vaccine development. The use of particle vaccine formulations allows improvement of antigen stability and immunogenicity while allowing targeted delivery
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Synthetic biodegradable microparticle and nanoparticle platform technology provides the opportunity to design particles varying in composition, size, shape and surface properties for application in vaccine development. The use of particle vaccine formulations allows improvement of antigen stability and immunogenicity while allowing targeted delivery and slow release. This technology has been design to develop novel vaccines against the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. In the last decade, several nano- and micro-sized RSV vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in animal models showing promising results. This review provides an overview of recent advances in prophylactic particle vaccines for RSV and the multiple factors that can affect vaccine efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Co-Deliver Immunopotentiators and Antigens)
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Open AccessReview Tumor-Derived Exosomes and Their Role in Tumor-Induced Immune Suppression
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 35; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040035
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are emerging as critical components of an intercellular information network between the tumor and the host. The tumor escapes from the host immune system by using a variety of mechanisms designed to impair or eliminate anti-tumor immunity. TEX carrying a
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Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are emerging as critical components of an intercellular information network between the tumor and the host. The tumor escapes from the host immune system by using a variety of mechanisms designed to impair or eliminate anti-tumor immunity. TEX carrying a cargo of immunoinhibitory molecules and factors represent one such mechanism. TEX, which are present in all body fluids of cancer patients, deliver negative molecular or genetic signals to immune cells re-programming their functions. Although TEX can also stimulate immune activity, in the microenvironments dominated by the tumor, TEX tend to mediate immune suppression thus promoting tumor progression. The TEX content, in part resembling that of the parent cell, may serve as a source of cancer biomarkers. TEX also interfere with immune therapies. A better understanding of TEX and their contribution to cancer progression and cancer patients’ response to immune therapies represents a challenging new field of investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Tumor Microenvironment Metabolism: A New Checkpoint for Anti-Tumor Immunity
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 46; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040046
Received: 27 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
When a T cell infiltrates a tumor, it is subjected to a variety of immunosuppressive and regulatory signals in the microenvironment. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that due to the proliferative and energetically-deregulated nature of tumor cells, T cells also operate at
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When a T cell infiltrates a tumor, it is subjected to a variety of immunosuppressive and regulatory signals in the microenvironment. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that due to the proliferative and energetically-deregulated nature of tumor cells, T cells also operate at a metabolic disadvantage. The nutrient dearth of the tumor microenvironment (TME) creates “metabolic checkpoints” upon infiltrating T cells, impacting their ability to survive, proliferate and function effectively. In this review, we summarize the basics of tumor cell and T cell metabolism and discuss recent advances elucidating the individual metabolic checkpoints exerted on T cells that drive their dysfunction in the TME. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) in Cancer Progression
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040036
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment represents not only one of the key factors stimulating tumor progression but also a strong obstacle for efficient tumor immunotherapy. Immunosuppression was found to be associated with chronic inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors produced by cancer
[...] Read more.
The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment represents not only one of the key factors stimulating tumor progression but also a strong obstacle for efficient tumor immunotherapy. Immunosuppression was found to be associated with chronic inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors produced by cancer and stroma cells. Long-term intensive production of these factors induces the formation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) representing one of the most important players mediating immunosuppression. Moreover, MDSCs could not only inhibit anti-tumor immune reactions but also directly stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of their generation, expansion, recruitment and activation is required for the development of novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Is There Still Room for Cancer Vaccines at the Era of Checkpoint Inhibitors
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040037
Received: 27 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
Checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) blockade is considered to be a revolution in cancer therapy, although most patients (70%–80%) remain resistant to this therapy. It has been hypothesized that only tumors with high mutation rates generate a natural antitumor T cell response, which could be
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Checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) blockade is considered to be a revolution in cancer therapy, although most patients (70%–80%) remain resistant to this therapy. It has been hypothesized that only tumors with high mutation rates generate a natural antitumor T cell response, which could be revigorated by this therapy. In patients with no pre-existing antitumor T cells, a vaccine-induced T cell response is a rational option to counteract clinical resistance. This hypothesis has been validated in preclinical models using various cancer vaccines combined with inhibitory pathway blockade (PD-1-PDL1-2, CTLA-4-CD80-CD86). Enhanced T cell infiltration of various tumors has been demonstrated following this combination therapy. The timing of this combination appears to be critical to the success of this therapy and multiple combinations of immunomodulating antibodies (CPI antagonists or costimulatory pathway agonists) have reinforced the synergy with cancer vaccines. Only limited results are available in humans and this combined approach has yet to be validated. Comprehensive monitoring of the regulation of CPI and costimulatory molecules after administration of immunomodulatory antibodies (anti-PD1/PD-L1, anti-CTLA-4, anti-OX40, etc.) and cancer vaccines should help to guide the selection of the best combination and timing of this therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 48; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040048
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate
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Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. Full article
Open AccessReview Targeting Immune Regulatory Networks to Counteract Immune Suppression in Cancer
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040038
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
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Abstract
The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being
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The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Replicon RNA Viral Vectors as Vaccines
Vaccines 2016, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040039
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
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Abstract
Single-stranded RNA viruses of both positive and negative polarity have been used as vectors for vaccine development. In this context, alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles virus and rhabdoviruses have been engineered for expression of surface protein genes and antigens. Administration of replicon RNA vectors has
[...] Read more.
Single-stranded RNA viruses of both positive and negative polarity have been used as vectors for vaccine development. In this context, alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles virus and rhabdoviruses have been engineered for expression of surface protein genes and antigens. Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in various animal models. Immunization of mice, chicken, pigs and primates with virus-like particles, naked RNA or layered DNA/RNA plasmids has provided protection against challenges with lethal doses of infectious agents and administered tumor cells. Both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy has been achieved in cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, recombinant particles and replicon RNAs have been encapsulated by liposomes to improve delivery and targeting. Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses provides high transient expression levels of antigens resulting in generation of neutralizing antibody responses and protection against lethal challenges under safe conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Co-Deliver Immunopotentiators and Antigens)
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