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Vaccines 2016, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/vaccines4020020

N. meningitidis and TLR Polymorphisms: A Fascinating Immunomodulatory Network

1
Strada del Petriccio e Belriguardo, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diane M. Harper
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [222 KB, uploaded 27 May 2016]

Abstract

N. meningitidis infections represent a global health problem that can lead to the development of serious permanent sequelae. Although the use of antibiotics and prevention via vaccination have reduced the incidence of meningococcal disease, our understanding regarding N. meningitidis pathogenesis is still limited, especially of those mechanisms responsible for IMD and fulminant or deadly septic shock. These severe clinical presentations occur in a limited number of subjects, whereas about 10% of healthy individuals are estimated to carry the bacteria as a commensal. Since TLR activation is involved in the defense against N. meningitidis, several studies have highlighted the association between host TLR SNPs and a higher susceptibility and severity of N. meningitidis infections. Moreover, TLR SNPs induced variations in immunological responses and in their persistence upon vaccination against meningococcal disease. In the absence of mass vaccination programs, the early identification of risk factors for meningococcal disease would be recommended in order to start immunization strategies and antibiotic treatment in those subjects carrying the risk variants. In addition, it could allow us to identify individuals with a higher risk for severe disease and sequelae in order to develop a personalized healthcare of high-risk subjects based on their genomic profile. In this review, we have illustrated important preliminary correlations between TLR variants and meningococcal susceptibility/severity and with vaccine-induced immune responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis; invasive meningococcal disease; TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms; risk factors; immunological responses; meningococcal vaccines Neisseria meningitidis; invasive meningococcal disease; TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms; risk factors; immunological responses; meningococcal vaccines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gianchecchi, E.; Torelli, A.; Piccini, G.; Piccirella, S.; Montomoli, E. N. meningitidis and TLR Polymorphisms: A Fascinating Immunomodulatory Network. Vaccines 2016, 4, 20.

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