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Vaccines 2016, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/vaccines4020019

Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Green Chemistry and Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diane M. Harper
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycopeptide-based and Related Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [738 KB, uploaded 20 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Carbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs), isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: T-cell dependent immune response; zwitterionic polysaccharides; carbohydrate-based vaccines; PS A1 T-cell dependent immune response; zwitterionic polysaccharides; carbohydrate-based vaccines; PS A1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nishat, S.; Andreana, P.R. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses. Vaccines 2016, 4, 19.

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