Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses
AbstractCarbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs), isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses. View Full-Text
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Nishat, S.; Andreana, P.R. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses. Vaccines 2016, 4, 19.
Nishat S, Andreana PR. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses. Vaccines. 2016; 4(2):19.Chicago/Turabian Style
Nishat, Sharmeen; Andreana, Peter R. 2016. "Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses." Vaccines 4, no. 2: 19.
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