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Vaccines 2015, 3(4), 988-1003; doi:10.3390/vaccines3040988

Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

East Yorkshire Microbiology, Innovation Centre, York Science Park, York YO10 5DG, UK
Academic Editor: Diane M. Harper
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Specific Immune Response to Vaccination)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [121 KB, uploaded 9 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended. View Full-Text
Keywords: mumps; rubella; varicella; immunization; oral fluid; antibody capture assays; time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay; genotyping; chickenpox history mumps; rubella; varicella; immunization; oral fluid; antibody capture assays; time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay; genotyping; chickenpox history
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maple, P.A.C. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs. Vaccines 2015, 3, 988-1003.

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