Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 422-462; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020422

Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

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Received: 9 April 2014; in revised form: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables), and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches.
Keywords: human papillomavirus (HPV); therapeutic vaccination; cancer immunotherapy; epitopes; cytotoxic T cells (CTL); T helper cells (Th); cervical cancer; peptide vaccination; nanoparticles (NPs); DNA vaccination; dendritic cell (DC) vaccination; vector-based vaccination; adjuvants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khallouf, H.; Grabowska, A.K.; Riemer, A.B. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus. Vaccines 2014, 2, 422-462.

AMA Style

Khallouf H, Grabowska AK, Riemer AB. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus. Vaccines. 2014; 2(2):422-462.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khallouf, Hadeel; Grabowska, Agnieszka K.; Riemer, Angelika B. 2014. "Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus." Vaccines 2, no. 2: 422-462.

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