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Vaccines 2013, 1(3), 278-292; doi:10.3390/vaccines1030278
Review

Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination

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Received: 13 June 2013; in revised form: 6 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
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Abstract: DNA vaccines can induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although some DNA vaccines are already licensed for infectious diseases in animals, they are not licensed for human use because the risk and benefit of DNA vaccines is still controversial. Indeed, in humans, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is lower than that of other traditional vaccines. To develop the use of DNA vaccines in the clinic, various approaches are in progress to enhance or improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. Recent studies have shown that immunogenicity of DNA vaccines are regulated by innate immune responses via plasmid DNA recognition through the STING-TBK1 signaling cascade. Similarly, molecules that act as dsDNA sensors that activate innate immune responses through STING-TBK1 have been identified and used as genetic adjuvants to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity in mouse models. However, the mechanisms that induce innate immune responses by DNA vaccines are still unclear. In this review, we will discuss innate immune signaling upon DNA vaccination and genetic adjuvants of innate immune signaling molecules.
Keywords: DNA vaccine; innate immune responses; adjuvant; DNA sensor DNA vaccine; innate immune responses; adjuvant; DNA sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kobiyama, K.; Jounai, N.; Aoshi, T.; Tozuka, M.; Takeshita, F.; Coban, C.; Ishii, K.J. Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination. Vaccines 2013, 1, 278-292.

AMA Style

Kobiyama K, Jounai N, Aoshi T, Tozuka M, Takeshita F, Coban C, Ishii KJ. Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination. Vaccines. 2013; 1(3):278-292.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Aoshi, Taiki; Tozuka, Miyuki; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Coban, Cevayir; Ishii, Ken J. 2013. "Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination." Vaccines 1, no. 3: 278-292.

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