Abstract: DNA vaccines can induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although some DNA vaccines are already licensed for infectious diseases in animals, they are not licensed for human use because the risk and benefit of DNA vaccines is still controversial. Indeed, in humans, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is lower than that of other traditional vaccines. To develop the use of DNA vaccines in the clinic, various approaches are in progress to enhance or improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. Recent studies have shown that immunogenicity of DNA vaccines are regulated by innate immune responses via plasmid DNA recognition through the STING-TBK1 signaling cascade. Similarly, molecules that act as dsDNA sensors that activate innate immune responses through STING-TBK1 have been identified and used as genetic adjuvants to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity in mouse models. However, the mechanisms that induce innate immune responses by DNA vaccines are still unclear. In this review, we will discuss innate immune signaling upon DNA vaccination and genetic adjuvants of innate immune signaling molecules.
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Kobiyama, K.; Jounai, N.; Aoshi, T.; Tozuka, M.; Takeshita, F.; Coban, C.; Ishii, K.J. Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination. Vaccines 2013, 1, 278-292.
Kobiyama K, Jounai N, Aoshi T, Tozuka M, Takeshita F, Coban C, Ishii KJ. Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination. Vaccines. 2013; 1(3):278-292.
Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Aoshi, Taiki; Tozuka, Miyuki; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Coban, Cevayir; Ishii, Ken J. 2013. "Innate Immune Signaling by, and Genetic Adjuvants for DNA Vaccination." Vaccines 1, no. 3: 278-292.