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Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 95; doi:10.3390/antiox6040095

Vitamin E Bioavailability: Mechanisms of Intestinal Absorption in the Spotlight

Aix Marseille University, INRA, INSERM, C2VN, 13005 Marseille, France
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E)
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Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on human health can be attributed to both antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties. A growing number of studies aim to promote vitamin E bioavailability in foods. It is thus of major interest to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of vitamin E absorption, which remain only partly understood. It was long assumed that vitamin E was absorbed by passive diffusion, but recent data has shown that this process is actually far more complex than previously thought. This review describes the fate of vitamin E in the human gastrointestinal lumen during digestion and focuses on the proteins involved in the intestinal membrane and cellular transport of vitamin E across the enterocyte. Special attention is also given to the factors modulating both vitamin E micellarization and absorption. Although these latest results significantly improve our understanding of vitamin E intestinal absorption, further studies are still needed to decipher the molecular mechanisms driving this multifaceted process. View Full-Text
Keywords: tocopherol; intestine; mixed micelles; dietary lipids; food matrix; membrane transporters; uptake; enterocytes; chylomicrons; HDL; fat-soluble vitamins tocopherol; intestine; mixed micelles; dietary lipids; food matrix; membrane transporters; uptake; enterocytes; chylomicrons; HDL; fat-soluble vitamins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Reboul, E. Vitamin E Bioavailability: Mechanisms of Intestinal Absorption in the Spotlight. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 95.

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