Special Issue "Vitamin E"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Volker Böhm

Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 25-29, Jena 07743, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dietary antioxidants; carotenoids; polyphenols; vitamin E; vitamin C; antioxidant activity/capacity; interactions; bioavailability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue of Antioxidants is to present recent investigations on the role of vitamin E as antioxidant in health promotion or disease prevention, as well as results on non-antioxidant activities of vitamin E. It is also important to show recent developments for vitamin E in structural characterization of bioactive, endogenous metabolites, and the use of vitamin E in industry.

Vitamin E was first described in 1922 as a necessary dietary factor for reproduction in rats. In contrast to most other vitamins showing a cofactor function or a unique molecular role, such a specific vitamin E function, has not yet been shown. Vitamin E is an important lipophilic antioxidant, protecting, e.g., long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes. In food, there are four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. In contrast, the most important compound in vivo is α-tocopherol. The hepatic α-tocopherol transfer protein is one reason for this discrimination. Another explanation is the preferential metabolism of non-α-tocopherol congeners by ω-hydroxylation and β-oxidation. Recent investigations showed interesting biological activities of long-chain metabolites (e.g., α-13’-carboxychromal) of vitamin E.

Therefore, you are invited to submit original research papers or review articles, focused on all issues related to vitamin E.

Prof. Dr. Volker Böhm
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Vitamin E
  • Absorption, metabolism and bioavailability
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Antioxidant mechanisms
  • Non-antioxidant activities
  • Health and disease
  • Industrial uses
  • Functional properties
  • Extraction and chemical characterization of metabolites

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Vitamin E
Antioxidants 2018, 7(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7030044
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant system and is exclusively obtained from the diet[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle The Subcellular Distribution of Alpha-Tocopherol in the Adult Primate Brain and Its Relationship with Membrane Arachidonic Acid and Its Oxidation Products
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040097
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content,
[...] Read more.
The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (ST), and hippocampus (HC) of adult rhesus monkeys (n = 9), fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0.7 µmol/kg body weight/day, ~5 µmol/kg body weight/day, respectively). α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS) respectively. α-Tocopherol (ng/mg protein) was highest in nuclear membranes (p < 0.05) for all regions except HC. In PFC and ST, arachidonic acid (AA, µg/mg protein) had a similar membrane distribution to α-tocopherol. Total α-tocopherol concentrations were inversely associated with AA oxidation products (isoprostanes) (p < 0.05), but not docosahexaenoic acid oxidation products (neuroprostanes). This study reports novel data on α-tocopherol accumulation in primate brain regions and membranes and provides evidence that α-tocopherol and AA are similarly distributed in PFC and ST membranes, which may reflect a protective effect of α-tocopherol against AA oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview Antioxidant Tocols as Radiation Countermeasures (Challenges to be Addressed to Use Tocols as Radiation Countermeasures in Humans)
Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020033
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radiation countermeasures fall under three categories, radiation protectors, radiation mitigators, and radiation therapeutics. Radiation protectors are agents that are administered before radiation exposure to protect from radiation-induced injuries by numerous mechanisms, including scavenging free radicals that are generated by initial radiochemical events. Radiation
[...] Read more.
Radiation countermeasures fall under three categories, radiation protectors, radiation mitigators, and radiation therapeutics. Radiation protectors are agents that are administered before radiation exposure to protect from radiation-induced injuries by numerous mechanisms, including scavenging free radicals that are generated by initial radiochemical events. Radiation mitigators are agents that are administered after the exposure of radiation but before the onset of symptoms by accelerating the recovery and repair from radiation-induced injuries. Whereas radiation therapeutic agents administered after the onset of symptoms act by regenerating the tissues that are injured by radiation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals generated by radiation exposure by donating H atoms. The vitamin E family consists of eight different vitamers, including four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Though alpha-tocopherol was extensively studied in the past, tocotrienols have recently gained attention as radiation countermeasures. Despite several studies performed on tocotrienols, there is no clear evidence on the factors that are responsible for their superior radiation protection properties over tocopherols. Their absorption and bioavailability are also not well understood. In this review, we discuss tocopherol’s and tocotrienol’s efficacy as radiation countermeasures and identify the challenges to be addressed to develop them into radiation countermeasures for human use in the event of radiological emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Vitamin E as an Antioxidant in Female Reproductive Health
Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020022
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 as a substance necessary for reproduction. Following this discovery, vitamin E was extensively studied, and it has become widely known as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant. There has been increasing interest in the role of vitamin E
[...] Read more.
Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 as a substance necessary for reproduction. Following this discovery, vitamin E was extensively studied, and it has become widely known as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant. There has been increasing interest in the role of vitamin E as an antioxidant, as it has been discovered to lower body cholesterol levels and act as an anticancer agent. Numerous studies have reported that vitamin E exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-survival, pro-apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic effects in cancer, as well as anti-inflammatory activities. There are various reports on the benefits of vitamin E on health in general. However, despite it being initially discovered as a vitamin necessary for reproduction, to date, studies relating to its effects in this area are lacking. Hence, this paper was written with the intention of providing a review of the known roles of vitamin E as an antioxidant in female reproductive health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Vitamin E as a Treatment for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Reality or Myth?
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010012
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is one of the major epidemics of this millennium, and its incidence is growing worldwide. Following the epidemics of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a disease of increasing prevalence and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality closely related
[...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the major epidemics of this millennium, and its incidence is growing worldwide. Following the epidemics of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a disease of increasing prevalence and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality closely related to cardiovascular disease, malignancies, and cirrhosis. It is believed that oxidative stress is a main player in the development and progression of NAFLD. Currently, a pharmacological approach has become necessary in NAFLD because of a failure to modify lifestyle and dietary habits in most patients. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in NAFLD. This review summarizes the biological activities of vitamin E, with a primary focus on its therapeutic efficacy in NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Long-Chain Metabolites of Vitamin E: Metabolic Activation as a General Concept for Lipid-Soluble Vitamins?
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010010
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Vitamins E, A, D and K comprise the class of lipid-soluble vitamins. For vitamins A and D, a metabolic conversion of precursors to active metabolites has already been described. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites (LCMs) 13′-hydroxychromanol (13′-OH) and 13′-carboxychromanol
[...] Read more.
Vitamins E, A, D and K comprise the class of lipid-soluble vitamins. For vitamins A and D, a metabolic conversion of precursors to active metabolites has already been described. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites (LCMs) 13′-hydroxychromanol (13′-OH) and 13′-carboxychromanol (13′-COOH) are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. The occurrence of these metabolites in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Indeed, effects of the LCMs on lipid metabolism, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammatory actions as well as tocopherol and xenobiotic metabolism have been shown. Interestingly, there are several parallels between the actions of the LCMs of vitamin E and the active metabolites of vitamin A and D. The recent findings that the LCMs exert effects different from that of their precursors support their putative role as regulatory metabolites. Hence, it could be proposed that the mode of action of the LCMs might be mediated by a mechanism similar to vitamin A and D metabolites. If the physiological relevance and this concept of action of the LCMs can be confirmed, a general concept of activation of lipid-soluble vitamins via their metabolites might be deduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Genotypic and Environmental Effects on Tocopherol Content in Almond
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010006
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Almond is the most important nut species worldwide and almond kernels show the highest levels of tocopherols among all nuts. In almond, tocopherols not only play a substantial role as a healthy food for human consumption, but also in protecting lipids against oxidation
[...] Read more.
Almond is the most important nut species worldwide and almond kernels show the highest levels of tocopherols among all nuts. In almond, tocopherols not only play a substantial role as a healthy food for human consumption, but also in protecting lipids against oxidation and, thus, lengthening the storage time of almond kernels. The main tocopherol homologues detected in almond in decreasing content and biological importance are α-, γ-, δ-, and β-tocopherol. Tocopherol concentration in almond depends on the genotype and the environment, such as the climatic conditions of the year and the growing management of the orchard. The range of variability for the different tocopherol homologues is of 335–657 mg/kg of almond oil for α-, 2–50 for γ-, and 0.1–22 for β-tocopherol. Drought and heat have been the most important stresses affecting tocopherol content in almond, with increased levels at higher temperatures and in water deficit conditions. The right cultivar and the most appropriate growing conditions may be selected to obtain crops with effective kernel storage and for the most beneficial effects of almond consumption for human nutrition and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Vitamin E Biosynthesis and Its Regulation in Plants
Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010002
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin E is one of the 13 vitamins that are essential to animals that do not produce them. To date, six natural organic compounds belonging to the chemical family of tocochromanols—four tocopherols and two tocotrienols—have been demonstrated as exhibiting vitamin E activity in
[...] Read more.
Vitamin E is one of the 13 vitamins that are essential to animals that do not produce them. To date, six natural organic compounds belonging to the chemical family of tocochromanols—four tocopherols and two tocotrienols—have been demonstrated as exhibiting vitamin E activity in animals. Edible plant-derived products, notably seed oils, are the main sources of vitamin E in the human diet. Although this vitamin is readily available, independent nutritional surveys have shown that human populations do not consume enough vitamin E, and suffer from mild to severe deficiency. Tocochromanols are mostly produced by plants, algae, and some cyanobacteria. Tocochromanol metabolism has been mainly studied in higher plants that produce tocopherols, tocotrienols, plastochromanol-8, and tocomonoenols. In contrast to the tocochromanol biosynthetic pathways that are well characterized, our understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms regulating tocochromanol biosynthesis is in its infancy. Although it is known that tocochromanol biosynthesis is strongly conditioned by the availability in homogentisate and polyprenyl pyrophosphate, its polar and lipophilic biosynthetic precursors, respectively, the mechanisms regulating their biosyntheses are barely known. This review summarizes our current knowledge of tocochromanol biosynthesis in plants, and highlights future challenges regarding the understanding of its regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in our Understanding of Tocopherol Biosynthesis in Plants: An Overview of Key Genes, Functions, and Breeding of Vitamin E Improved Crops
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040099
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Tocopherols, together with tocotrienols and plastochromanols belong to a group of lipophilic compounds also called tocochromanols or vitamin E. Considered to be one of the most powerful antioxidants, tocochromanols are solely synthesized by photosynthetic organisms including plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and, therefore, are
[...] Read more.
Tocopherols, together with tocotrienols and plastochromanols belong to a group of lipophilic compounds also called tocochromanols or vitamin E. Considered to be one of the most powerful antioxidants, tocochromanols are solely synthesized by photosynthetic organisms including plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and, therefore, are an essential component in the human diet. Tocochromanols potent antioxidative properties are due to their ability to interact with polyunsaturated acyl groups and scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and quench reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus protecting fatty acids from lipid peroxidation. In the plant model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the required genes for tocopherol biosynthesis and functional roles of tocopherols were elucidated in mutant and transgenic plants. Recent research efforts have led to new outcomes for the vitamin E biosynthetic and related pathways, and new possible alternatives for the biofortification of important crops have been suggested. Here, we review 30 years of research on tocopherols in model and crop species, with emphasis on the improvement of vitamin E content using transgenic approaches and classical breeding. We will discuss future prospects to further improve the nutritional value of our food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Vitamin E Bioavailability: Mechanisms of Intestinal Absorption in the Spotlight
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040095
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on human health can be attributed to both antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties. A growing number of studies aim to promote vitamin E bioavailability in foods. It is thus of major interest to gain deeper
[...] Read more.
Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on human health can be attributed to both antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties. A growing number of studies aim to promote vitamin E bioavailability in foods. It is thus of major interest to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of vitamin E absorption, which remain only partly understood. It was long assumed that vitamin E was absorbed by passive diffusion, but recent data has shown that this process is actually far more complex than previously thought. This review describes the fate of vitamin E in the human gastrointestinal lumen during digestion and focuses on the proteins involved in the intestinal membrane and cellular transport of vitamin E across the enterocyte. Special attention is also given to the factors modulating both vitamin E micellarization and absorption. Although these latest results significantly improve our understanding of vitamin E intestinal absorption, further studies are still needed to decipher the molecular mechanisms driving this multifaceted process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Tocotrienols: A Family of Molecules with Specific Biological Activities
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040093
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering
[...] Read more.
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering foetal re-absorption in deficient rodents or the development of encephalomalacia in chickens. In humans, Vitamin E activity is generally considered to be solely related to the antioxidant properties of the tocolic chemical structure. In recent years, several reports have shown that specific activities exist for each different tocotrienol form. In this short review, tocotrienol ability to inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis thanks to specific mechanisms, not shared by tocopherols, such as the binding to Estrogen Receptor-β (ERβ) and the triggering of endoplasmic reticulum (EndoR) stress will be described. The neuroprotective activity will also be presented and discussed. We propose that available studies strongly indicate that specific forms of tocotrienols have a distinct mechanism and biological activity, significantly different from tocopherol and more specifically from α-tocopherol. We therefore suggest not pooling them together within the broad term “Vitamin E” on solely the basis of their putative antioxidant properties. This option implies obvious consequences in the assessment of dietary Vitamin E adequacy and, probably more importantly, on the possibility of evaluating a separate biological variable, determinant in the relationship between diet and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E) Printed Edition available
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