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Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 97; doi:10.3390/antiox6040097

The Subcellular Distribution of Alpha-Tocopherol in the Adult Primate Brain and Its Relationship with Membrane Arachidonic Acid and Its Oxidation Products

1
Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
2
Discovery Research, Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH 43229, USA
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
4
Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E)
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Abstract

The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (ST), and hippocampus (HC) of adult rhesus monkeys (n = 9), fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0.7 µmol/kg body weight/day, ~5 µmol/kg body weight/day, respectively). α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS) respectively. α-Tocopherol (ng/mg protein) was highest in nuclear membranes (p < 0.05) for all regions except HC. In PFC and ST, arachidonic acid (AA, µg/mg protein) had a similar membrane distribution to α-tocopherol. Total α-tocopherol concentrations were inversely associated with AA oxidation products (isoprostanes) (p < 0.05), but not docosahexaenoic acid oxidation products (neuroprostanes). This study reports novel data on α-tocopherol accumulation in primate brain regions and membranes and provides evidence that α-tocopherol and AA are similarly distributed in PFC and ST membranes, which may reflect a protective effect of α-tocopherol against AA oxidation. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-tocopherol; brain; membranes; arachidonic acid; isoprostanes; rhesus monkey α-tocopherol; brain; membranes; arachidonic acid; isoprostanes; rhesus monkey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohn, E.S.; Kuchan, M.J.; Erdman, J.W.; Neuringer, M.; Matthan, N.R.; Chen, C.-Y.O.; Johnson, E.J. The Subcellular Distribution of Alpha-Tocopherol in the Adult Primate Brain and Its Relationship with Membrane Arachidonic Acid and Its Oxidation Products. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 97.

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