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Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 25; doi:10.3390/antiox6020025

Abnormalities of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Departments of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Department of Neurobiology, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yisang Yoon
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 April 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Shape Change in Physio-Pathology)
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Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and devastating neurological disorders characterized by the progressive loss of the structure and function of neurons in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system. Mitochondria, organelles found in most eukaryotic cells, are essential for neuronal survival and are involved in a number of neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been demonstrated as a common prominent early pathological feature of a variety of common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s disease (HD). Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo continuous fusion, fission, and transport, the processes of which not only control mitochondrial morphology and number but also regulate mitochondrial function and location. The importance of mitochondrial dynamics in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases has been increasingly unraveled after the identification of several key fusion and fission regulators such as Drp1, OPA1, and mitofusins. In this review, after a brief discussion of molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial fusion, fission, distribution, and trafficking, as well as the important role of mitochondrial dynamics for neuronal function, we review previous and the most recent studies about mitochondrial dynamic abnormalities observed in various major neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the possibility of targeting mitochondrial dynamics as a likely novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrial dynamics; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; mitochondrial fusion and fission; mitochondrial trafficking; mitochondrial dysfunction; neurodegeneration mitochondrial dynamics; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; mitochondrial fusion and fission; mitochondrial trafficking; mitochondrial dysfunction; neurodegeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gao, J.; Wang, L.; Liu, J.; Xie, F.; Su, B.; Wang, X. Abnormalities of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 25.

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