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Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 57; doi:10.3390/brainsci6040057

Long-Term Task- and Dopamine-Dependent Dynamics of Subthalamic Local Field Potentials in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Colorado Neurological Institute, Englewood, CO 80113, USA
2
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
3
Movement and Neuroperformance Center of Colorado, Englewood, CO 80113, USA
4
Blue Sky Neurology, Englewood, CO 80113, USA
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Denver, CO 80208, USA
6
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tipu Aziz and Alex Green
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications)
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Abstract

Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS) with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating room to determine the reliability of the signals over time and assess their dynamics with respect to behavior and dopaminergic medication. Seven subjects were implanted with the recording augmented deep brain stimulation (DBS) system, and bilateral STN-LFP recordings were collected in the clinic over twelve months. Subjects were cued to perform voluntary motor and language behaviors in on and off medication states. The STN-LFP recorded with the INS demonstrated behavior-modulated desynchronization of beta frequency (13–30 Hz) and synchronization of low gamma frequency (35–70 Hz) oscillations. Dopaminergic medication did not diminish the relative beta frequency oscillatory desynchronization with movement. However, movement-related gamma frequency oscillatory synchronization was only observed in the medication on state. We observed significant inter-subject variability, but observed consistent STN-LFP activity across recording systems and over a one-year period for each subject. These findings demonstrate that an INS system can provide robust STN-LFP recordings in ambulatory patients, allowing for these signals to be recorded in settings that better represent natural environments in which patients are in a variety of medication states. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease (PD); local field potential (LFP); deep brain stimulation (DBS); beta frequency oscillations; subthalamic nucleus; closed-loop Parkinson’s disease (PD); local field potential (LFP); deep brain stimulation (DBS); beta frequency oscillations; subthalamic nucleus; closed-loop
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanrahan, S.J.; Nedrud, J.J.; Davidson, B.S.; Farris, S.; Giroux, M.; Haug, A.; Mahoor, M.H.; Silverman, A.K.; Zhang, J.J.; Hebb, A.O. Long-Term Task- and Dopamine-Dependent Dynamics of Subthalamic Local Field Potentials in Parkinson’s Disease. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 57.

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