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Brain Sci. 2015, 5(2), 165-177; doi:10.3390/brainsci5020165

Growth Factors for the Treatment of Ischemic Brain Injury (Growth Factor Treatment)

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruno Meloni
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotection against Ischemic Brain Injury)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [364 KB, uploaded 30 April 2015]


In recent years, growth factor therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic brain injury. The efficacy of therapies that either directly introduce or stimulate local production of growth factors and their receptors in damaged brain tissue has been tested in a multitude of models for different Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. These growth factors include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), among others. Despite the promise shown in animal models, the particular growth factors that should be used to maximize both brain protection and repair, and the therapeutic critical period, are not well defined. We will review current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for growth factor therapies in treating different causes of brain injury, as well as issues to be addressed prior to application in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; ischemia; growth factors; erythropoietin; VEGF; IGF-1; BDNF stroke; ischemia; growth factors; erythropoietin; VEGF; IGF-1; BDNF
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Larpthaveesarp, A.; Ferriero, D.M.; Gonzalez, F.F. Growth Factors for the Treatment of Ischemic Brain Injury (Growth Factor Treatment). Brain Sci. 2015, 5, 165-177.

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