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Brain Sci. 2014, 4(2), 405-427; doi:10.3390/brainsci4020405
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Can Musical Training Influence Brain Connectivity? Evidence from Diffusion Tensor MRI

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 and
1,*
1 Institute of Music in Human and Social Development (IMHSD), Reid School of Music, Alison House, 12 Nicolson Square, Edinburgh EH8 9DF, UK 2 SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA 3 Centre for Clinical Brain Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, UK 4 Clinical Research Imaging Centre (CRIC), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Neural Plasticity)
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Abstract

In recent years, musicians have been increasingly recruited to investigate grey and white matter neuroplasticity induced by skill acquisition. The development of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) has allowed more detailed investigation of white matter connections within the brain, addressing questions about the effect of musical training on connectivity between specific brain regions. Here, current DT-MRI analysis techniques are discussed and the available evidence from DT-MRI studies into differences in white matter architecture between musicians and non-musicians is reviewed. Collectively, the existing literature tends to support the hypothesis that musical training can induce changes in cross-hemispheric connections, with significant differences frequently reported in various regions of the corpus callosum of musicians compared with non-musicians. However, differences found in intra-hemispheric fibres have not always been replicated, while findings regarding the internal capsule and corticospinal tracts appear to be contradictory. There is also recent evidence to suggest that variances in white matter structure in non-musicians may correlate with their ability to learn musical skills, offering an alternative explanation for the structural differences observed between musicians and non-musicians. Considering the inconsistencies in the current literature, possible reasons for conflicting results are offered, along with suggestions for future research in this area.
Keywords: musicians; white matter; diffusion tensor MRI; neuroplasticity musicians; white matter; diffusion tensor MRI; neuroplasticity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Moore, E.; Schaefer, R.S.; Bastin, M.E.; Roberts, N.; Overy, K. Can Musical Training Influence Brain Connectivity? Evidence from Diffusion Tensor MRI. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 405-427.

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