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Brain Sci. 2014, 4(2), 428-452; doi:10.3390/brainsci4020428

Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

1,* , 2,3,† and 2
1 Center for Biomedical Research in Music, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA 2 Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S102TP, UK 3 Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan 20126, Italy Present address: Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Milan 20121, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Neural Plasticity)
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Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.
Keywords: music; neuroimaging; rhythm; perception; brain music; neuroimaging; rhythm; perception; brain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Thaut, M.H.; Trimarchi, P.D.; Parsons, L.M. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 428-452.

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