Brain Sci. 2014, 4(2), 311-320; doi:10.3390/brainsci4020311
Article

Time-Dependent Effects of Anesthetic Isoflurane on Reactive Oxygen Species Levels in HEK-293 Cells

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Received: 27 January 2014; in revised form: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxicity and General Anaesthetics in the Young)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms of these effects are largely unknown. Isoflurane has been shown to induce elevation of cytosol calcium levels, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, reduction in mitochondria membrane potential, and release of cytochrome c. The time course of these effects, however, remains to be determined. Therefore, we performed a pilot study to determine the effects of treatment with isoflurane for various times on ROS levels in HEK-293 cells. The cells were treated with 2% isoflurane plus 21% O2 and 5% CO2 for 15, 30, 60, or 90 min. We then used fluorescence imaging and microplate fluorometer to detect ROS levels. We show that 2% isoflurane for 60 or 90 min, but not 15 or 30 min, induced ROS accumulation in the cells. These data illustrated that isoflurane could cause time-dependent effects on ROS levels. These findings have established a system to further determine the time course effects of isoflurane on cellular and mitochondria function. Ultimately, the studies would elucidate, at least partially, the underlying mechanisms of isoflurane-induced cellular toxicity.
Keywords: isoflurane; reactive oxygen species; mitochondria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, Y.; Cheng, B.; Dong, Y.; Li, T.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, Y. Time-Dependent Effects of Anesthetic Isoflurane on Reactive Oxygen Species Levels in HEK-293 Cells. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 311-320.

AMA Style

Sun Y, Cheng B, Dong Y, Li T, Xie Z, Zhang Y. Time-Dependent Effects of Anesthetic Isoflurane on Reactive Oxygen Species Levels in HEK-293 Cells. Brain Sciences. 2014; 4(2):311-320.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Yongxing; Cheng, Baiqi; Dong, Yuanlin; Li, Tianzuo; Xie, Zhongcong; Zhang, Yiying. 2014. "Time-Dependent Effects of Anesthetic Isoflurane on Reactive Oxygen Species Levels in HEK-293 Cells." Brain Sci. 4, no. 2: 311-320.

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