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A Double-Edged Sword: Volatile Anesthetic Effects on the Neonatal Brain
Brain Sci. 2014, 4(2), 295-310; doi:10.3390/brainsci4020295
Review

Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

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Received: 26 February 2014; in revised form: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 April 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxicity and General Anaesthetics in the Young)
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Abstract: Anesthetic neurotoxicity has been a hot topic in anesthesia for the past decade. It is of special interest to pediatric anesthesiologists. A subgroup of children potentially at greater risk for anesthetic neurotoxicity, based on a prolonged anesthetic exposure early in development, are those children receiving anesthesia for surgical repair of congenital heart disease. These children have a known risk of neurologic deficit after cardiopulmonary bypass for surgical repair of congenital heart disease. Yet, the type of anesthesia used has not been considered as a potential etiology for their neurologic deficits. These children not only receive prolonged anesthetic exposure during surgical repair, but also receive repeated anesthetic exposures during a critical period of brain development. Their propensity to abnormal brain development, as a result of congenital heart disease, may modify their risk of anesthetic neurotoxicity. This review article provides an overview of anesthetic neurotoxicity from the perspective of a pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist and provides insight into basic science and clinical investigations as it relates to this unique group of children who have been studied over several decades for their risk of neurologic injury.
Keywords: neurotoxicity; seizures; isoflurane; sevoflurane; ketamine; propofol; etomidate; desflurane; dexmedetomidine neurotoxicity; seizures; isoflurane; sevoflurane; ketamine; propofol; etomidate; desflurane; dexmedetomidine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wise-Faberowski, L.; Quinonez, Z.A.; Hammer, G.B. Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 295-310.

AMA Style

Wise-Faberowski L, Quinonez ZA, Hammer GB. Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. Brain Sciences. 2014; 4(2):295-310.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wise-Faberowski, Lisa; Quinonez, Zoel A.; Hammer, Gregory B. 2014. "Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery." Brain Sci. 4, no. 2: 295-310.


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