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Brain Sci. 2012, 2(4), 667-683; doi:10.3390/brainsci2040667
Article

Cocaine Sensitization Increases Kyphosis and Modulates Neural Activity in Adult Nulliparous Rats

1,* , 2
, 2 and 3
Received: 20 September 2012; in revised form: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Neuroadaptation)
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Abstract: Although data from both animals and humans suggests that adult cocaine use can have long term effects on behavior, it is unknown if prior cocaine use affects future maternal behavior in nulliparous females. In the current study, cocaine or saline was administered to adult female rats for 10 days, the animals were withdrawn from cocaine for 7 days, and the females were then exposed to donor pups to induce the expression of maternal behavior. Nulliparous females sensitized to cocaine were more likely to retrieve pups, spent more time caring for the pups, and were more likely to express full maternal behavior on day 8 of pup exposure. The fMRI data revealed significant effects of pup exposure in the hippocampal CA1 region, and effects of cocaine in the anterior thalamus and periaqueductal gray. Prior adult cocaine use may have lasting effects on offspring care, and this effect is not dependent on pup mediated effects or the endocrine changes of gestation and lactation. The present findings provide support for the hypothesis that maternal motivation to exhibit maternal behavior is enhanced by prior cocaine sensitization, possibly due to cross sensitization between cocaine and the natural reward of maternal behavior.
Keywords: cocaine; sensitization; maternal behavior; kyphosis; crouching; nursing; hippocampus; thalamus; periaqueductal gray cocaine; sensitization; maternal behavior; kyphosis; crouching; nursing; hippocampus; thalamus; periaqueductal gray
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nephew, B.C.; Caffrey, M.K.; Felix-Ortiz, A.C.; Febo, M. Cocaine Sensitization Increases Kyphosis and Modulates Neural Activity in Adult Nulliparous Rats. Brain Sci. 2012, 2, 667-683.

AMA Style

Nephew BC, Caffrey MK, Felix-Ortiz AC, Febo M. Cocaine Sensitization Increases Kyphosis and Modulates Neural Activity in Adult Nulliparous Rats. Brain Sciences. 2012; 2(4):667-683.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nephew, Benjamin C.; Caffrey, Martha K.; Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Febo, Marcelo. 2012. "Cocaine Sensitization Increases Kyphosis and Modulates Neural Activity in Adult Nulliparous Rats." Brain Sci. 2, no. 4: 667-683.



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