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Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2012; in revised form: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 13 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Abstract: Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement.
Keywords: exercise; brain; neuroplasticity; motor control; physical activity; movement related cortical activity; electroencephalogram (EEG); fatigue; force; power
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Flanagan, S.D.; Dunn-Lewis, C.; Comstock, B.A.; Maresh, C.M.; Volek, J.S.; Denegar, C.R.; Kraemer, W.J. Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume. Brain Sci. 2012, 2, 649-666.
Flanagan SD, Dunn-Lewis C, Comstock BA, Maresh CM, Volek JS, Denegar CR, Kraemer WJ. Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume. Brain Sciences. 2012; 2(4):649-666.
Flanagan, Shawn D.; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A.; Maresh, Carl M.; Volek, Jeff S.; Denegar, Craig R.; Kraemer, William J. 2012. "Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume." Brain Sci. 2, no. 4: 649-666.